Alfred T. C. Chang

Learn More
The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Version-2 Monthly Precipitation Analysis is described. This globally complete, monthly analysis of surface precipitation at 2.58 latitude 3 2.58 longitude resolution is available from January 1979 to the present. It is a merged analysis that incorporates precipitation estimates from low-orbit satellite(More)
The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) has released the GPCP Version 1 Combined Precipitation Data Set, a global, monthly precipitation dataset covering the period July 1987 through December 1995. The primary product in the dataset is a merged analysis incorporating precipitation estimates from low-orbit-satellite microwave data,(More)
Th17 cells play an active role in autoimmune diseases. However, the nature of Th17 cells is poorly understood in cancer patients. We studied Th17 cells, the associated mechanisms, and clinical significance in 201 ovarian cancer patients. Tumor-infiltrating Th17 cells exhibit a polyfunctional effector T-cell phenotype, are positively associated with effector(More)
Activation of protein tyrosine kinases is prevalent in human cancers and previous studies have demonstrated that Stat3 signaling is a point of convergence for many of these tyrosine kinases. Moreover, a critical role for constitutive activation of Stat3 in tumor cell proliferation and survival has been established in diverse cancers. However, the oncogenic(More)
A methodologically simple approach to estimate snow depth from spaceborne microwave instruments is described. The scattering signal observed in multifrequency passive microwave data is used to detect snow cover. Wet snow, frozen ground, precipitation, and other anomalous scattering signals are screened using established methods. The results from two(More)
Code 974, Hydrological Sciences Branch, Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771, USA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771, USA Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA(More)
Th17 cells play an active role in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. However, the nature and regulation of Th17 in the context of tumor immunity remain unknown. In this study, we show that parallel to regulatory T (Treg) cells, IL-17(+) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells are kinetically induced in multiple tumor microenvironments in mice and humans. Treg cells(More)
Activated T cells may express FOXP3. It is thought that FOXP3 is not a specific marker to determine regulatory T cells (Treg) in humans. Here, we examined the functional phenotype and cytokine profile of the in vitro induced FOXP3(+) T cells, primary FOXP3(+) and FOXP3(-) T cells in patients with ulcerative colitis and tumors including colon carcinoma,(More)
The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was launched on 27 November 1997, and data from all the instruments first became available approximately 30 days after the launch. Since then, much progress has been made in the calibration of the sensors, the improvement of the rainfall algorithms, and applications of these results to areas such as(More)