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A light-sensitive, externally powered microchip was surgically implanted subretinally near the macular region of volunteers blind from hereditary retinal dystrophy. The implant contains an array of 1500 active microphotodiodes ('chip'), each with its own amplifier and local stimulation electrode. At the implant's tip, another array of 16 wire-connected(More)
Automats for patch clamping suspended cells in whole-cell configuration must (1) bring isolated cells in contact with patch contacts, (2) form gigaseals, and (3) establish stable intracellular access that allows for high quality recording of ionic currents. Single openings in planar substrates seem to be intriguing simple solutions for these problems, but(More)
Electrical stimulation has been shown to have neuroprotective effects on ganglion cells and photoreceptors in axotomized and dystrophic retinas from Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. This study determined whether electrical stimulation also has a neuroprotective effect on cells in the inner nuclear layer (INL) of retinas. We cultivated retinas from(More)
Visual prostheses such as subretinal implants are intended for electrical multisite excitation of the retinal network. To investigate relevant issues like spatial resolution and operational range, we have developed an in vitro method using microelectrode arrays to stimulate isolated retinae. Ganglion cell activity in the chicken retina evoked by distally(More)
An identified nerve cell of the leech is attached to a planar silicon microstructure of p-doped silicon covered by a thin layer of insulating silicon oxide. A voltage step, applied between silicon and electrolyte, induces a capacitive transient in the cell which elicits an action potential. The capacitive extracellular stimulation is described by an(More)
PURPOSE The perception of 11 persons blinded by hereditary retinal degeneration elicited by a subretinally implanted 16-electrode array used for light-independent direct stimulation of the retina is described. This device is part of the Tübingen retina implant, which also employs a light-sensitive, multiphotodiode array (MPDA). The ability to reliably(More)
BACKGROUND Subretinal implants intend to replace photoreceptor function in patients suffering from degenerative retinal disease by topically applying electrical stimuli from the subretinal space. This study intended to prove the feasibility of a newly developed transchoroidal surgery and, furthermore, of a subretinal electrode array, which closely resembles(More)
Our group has developed a subretinal microphotodiode array for restoration of vision. In a clinical pilot study the array has been implanted in 11 patients suffering from photoreceptor degenerations. Here we present promising results from some of those patients where the retinal tissue above the chip was functional and the implant fulfilled its expected(More)
Composites of carbon nanotubes and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, PEDOT) and layers of PEDOT are deposited onto microelectrodes by electropolymerization of ethylenedioxythiophene in the presence of a suspension of carbon nanotubes and polystyrene sulfonate. Analysis by FIB and SEM demonstrates that CNT-PEDOT composites exhibit a porous morphology whereas(More)
In order to obtain functional parameters relevant to the designing of a subretinal implant, we carried out electrical stimulation experiments with isolated chicken retina. The median threshold for network activation with planar disc electrodes (diameter 10 microm) was 0.5 nC (625 microC cm(-2)) for anodal voltage impulses and 1.6 nC (2 mC cm(-2)) for(More)