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The first macrolide, erythromycin A, demonstrated broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and was used primarily for respiratory and skin and soft tissue infections. Newer 14-, 15- and 16-membered ring macrolides such as clarithromycin and the azalide, azithromycin, have been developed to address the limitations of erythromycin. The main structural component(More)
Ceftaroline is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin currently under clinical investigation for the treatment of complicated skin and skin-structure infections (cSSSI), including those caused by meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Ceftaroline has the ability to bind to penicillin-binding protein (PBP)2a, an(More)
Avibactam (formerly NXL104, AVE1330A) is a synthetic non-β-lactam, β-lactamase inhibitor that inhibits the activities of Ambler class A and C β-lactamases and some Ambler class D enzymes. This review summarizes the existing data published for ceftazidime-avibactam, including relevant chemistry, mechanisms of action and resistance, microbiology,(More)
Ketolides are a new class of macrolides designed particularly to combat respiratory tract pathogens that have acquired resistance to macrolides. The ketolides are semi-synthetic derivatives of the 14-membered macrolide erythromycin A, and retain the erythromycin macrolactone ring structure as well as the D-desosamine sugar attached at position 5. The(More)
The tetracycline class of antimicrobials exhibit a broad-spectrum of activity against numerous pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as atypical organisms. These compounds are bacteriostatic, and act by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit and inhibiting protein synthesis. The tetracyclines have been used(More)
The new fluoroquinolones (clinafloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, sitafloxacin, sparfloxacin and trovafloxacin) offer excellent activity against Gram-negative bacilli and improved Gram-positive activity (e.g. against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus) over ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin still(More)
Piperacillin-tazobactam is a beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity that includes Gram-positive and -negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Piperacillin-tazobactam retains its in vitro activity against broad-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing and some extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing(More)
This study evaluated the prevalence of fluoroquinolone usage and investigated the association between usage and resistance in respiratory isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada. Fluoroquinolone susceptibility testing was conducted on S. pneumoniae collected from 25 medical centres across Canada over nine study years. Fluoroquinolone prescriptions(More)
Plazomicin (formerly ACHN-490) is a next-generation aminoglycoside that was synthetically derived from sisomicin by appending a hydroxy-aminobutyric acid substituent at position 1 and a hydroxyethyl substituent at position 6'. Plazomicin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis and exhibits dose-dependent bactericidal activity. Plazomicin demonstrates activity(More)