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To assess whether alterations in the normal pattern of testosterone (T) secretion might be beneficial or detrimental, we studied a breeding population of dark-eyed juncos in which we elevated T experimentally and measured its effect on potential correlates of fitness. We treated both free-living and captive males with implants that were either empty(More)
Relationships between hormones and behaviour can be explored by altering endogenous hormone levels, often through implantation of silastic tubing or osmotic pumps filled with a hormone or its agonists or antagonists. However, organisms in sensitive life-history stages (such as pregnancy) may be adversely affected by the surgical procedures associated with(More)
Male birdsong is generally regarded as a secondary sexual characteristic under the control of gonadal steroids. Song typically waxes and wanes with the seasonal cycle of testicular growth and regression and decreases after adult castration. Testosterone therapy reinstates song, induces it in females, augments it in intact males, and spring testosterone(More)
Stressors encountered during avian development may affect an individual's phenotype, including immunocompetence, growth, and feather quality. We examined effects of simulated chronic low-level stress on American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings. Continuous release of corticosterone, a hormone involved in the stress response, can model chronic stress in(More)
Free-living male brown-headed cowbirds were captured during the breeding season, implanted with testosterone-filled Silastic tubing, and released. Radioimmunoassay verified that the implants maintained circulating plasma testosterone values at maximal breeding season levels well beyond the normal time of decline. Survival to the following year of these(More)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was detected in the brains of passerine birds, a recently evolved and diverse avian group. The molecular forms of GnRH in two species of birds under breeding conditions were deduced using methods of HPLC and immunology. The brain extracts of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) contained a form of GnRH identified as(More)
We examined the adrenal response to handling stress of birds in different body conditions. In order to affect the birds' body condition, young (73-d old) female American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were maintained for 6 wk on one of three diets: a control diet (fed ad lib.) and two calorically restricted diets. To invoke a stress response, we removed birds(More)
We used a standard handling protocol to examine the stress response of captive young western screech-owls during their active (nighttime) and inactive (daytime) periods and to compare the stress responses of captive and free-living owls. Circulating corticosterone levels were significantly higher during the inactive period than in the active period in this(More)
The importance of singing in the establishment and maintenance of dominance rank was investigated in captive flocks of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). Each flock consisted of 3 males and 1 female. In one experiment the two largest males in each of 4 flocks were temporarily devocalized by puncturing the interclavicular air sac just before group(More)
Triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS), two of the most commonly used antimicrobial compounds, can be introduced into ecosystems by applying wastewater treatment plant biosolids to agricultural fields. Concentrations of TCC and TCS were measured in different trophic levels within a terrestrial food web encompassing land-applied biosolids, soil, earthworms(More)