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The paper reviews the development of generic user modeling systems over the past twenty years. It describes their purposes, their services within user-adaptive systems, and the different design requirements for research prototypes and commercially deployed servers. It discusses the architectures that have been explored so far, namely shell systems that form(More)
This article gives a comprehensive overview of techniques for personalized hypermedia presentation. It describes the data about the computer user, the computer usage and the physical environment that can be taken into account when catering hypermedia pages to the needs of the current user. Methods for acquiring these data, for representing them as models in(More)
User modeling has made considerable progress during its existence now of more than a decade. In this paper, a survey of recent developments will be presented, which concentrates on the modeling of a user’s knowledge, plans, and preferences in a domain, on the exploitation of new sources of information about the user, on issues of representation, inference(More)
This article gives a comprehensive overview of techniques for personalised hypermedia presentation. It describes the data about the computer user, the computer usage and the physical environment that can be taken into account when adapting hypermedia pages to the needs of the current user. Methods for acquiring these data, for representing them as models in(More)
Computer systems that augment the process of finding the right expert for a given problem in an organization or world-wide are becoming feasible more than ever before, thanks to the prevalence of corporate Intranets and the Internet. This paper investigates such systems in two parts. We first explore the expert finding problem in depth, review and analyze(More)
This chapter surveys the field of user modeling in artificial intelligence dialog systems. First, reasons why user modeling has become so important in the last few years are pointed out, and definitions are proposed for the terms 'user model' and 'user modeling component'. Research within and outside of artificial intelligence which is related to user(More)
This paper describes the automatic adaptation of hypertext to the user’s presumed domain knowledge in the KN-AHS system, and the support that the user modeling shell system BGP-MS can provide for this adaptation. First, basic hypertext concepts will be introduced and reasons given for why hypertext should adapt to the current user (especially to his/her(More)
The aim of this article is to present and discuss selected commercial user modeling systems against the background of deployment requirements in real-world environments. Following the recent trend towards personalization on the World Wide Web, these systems are mainly aimed at supporting e-commerce including customer relationship management. In order to(More)