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Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide secreted mainly by the stomach in adult rats. Ghrelin concentrations increase with fasting and decrease after food intake. Ghrelin is also present in the placenta and in the fetal stomach, but the role of fetal ghrelin remains unclear. In this study, we compared changes in plasma ghrelin, insulin, and glucose concentrations(More)
CONTEXT Increased physical activity is an integral part of weight loss programs in adolescents. We hypothesized that exercise could affect appetite-regulating hormones and the subjective desire to eat, which could partly explain the poor success rate of the existing interventions. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate prospectively the(More)
Advances in lithography have contributed significantly to the advancement of the integrated circuit technology. While non-optical next-generation lithography (NGL) solutions are being developed, optical lithography continues to be the workhorse for high-throughput very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) lithography. Extending optical lithography to the(More)
To determine whether peptide YY (PYY), ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and satiety responses to food intake are impaired in anorexia or obesity, we studied 30 female adolescents with anorexia nervosa [body mass index (BMI) 16.3 kg/m2], obesity (BMI 34.3 kg/m2), or normal weight (BMI 20.2 kg/m2). PYY, ghrelin, GIP, insulin, and(More)
BACKGROUND Ghrelin and obestatin are encoded by the preproghrelin gene and originate from posttranslational processing of the preproghrelin peptide. The fetal rat pancreas contains acylated and desacylated ghrelin peptides, as well as growth hormone secretagogue receptor -1a mRNA. Acylated ghrelin inhibits insulin secretion. We investigated the plasma and(More)
Ghrelin has orexigenic effects. It is present in umbilical cord plasma in full-term neonates, raising the prospect that ghrelin plays a role in fetal and neonatal energy balance. We measured ghrelin in small (SGA), appropriate (AGA), and large (LGA) for gestational age neonates and evaluated whether ghrelin levels are modulated by neonatal insulin and(More)
BACKGROUND Ghrelin is secreted by the stomach, the hypothalamus, and the placenta in humans and has growth hormone-secreting and orexigenic properties. Leptin is secreted mainly by the adipocyte, plays a major role in energy balance, and reflects fat mass in infants as well as adults. Leptin and ghrelin central effects are mediated, at least partly, through(More)
BACKGROUND Glucagon stimulation is routinely used as a provocative test to assess growth hormone (GH) sufficiency in pediatrics. Ghrelin also markedly stimulates GH secretion. Because glucagon stimulates the promoter of the ghrelin gene in vitro as well as ghrelin secretion by the perfused rat stomach, we sought to determine whether ghrelin mediates(More)