Alfred J. Sipols

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Insulin acts in the brain to suppress feeding, whereas neuropeptide Y (NPY) has the opposite effect. Since fasting lowers plasma insulin levels and increases hypothalamic synthesis of NPY, we proposed that insulin may inhibit hypothalamic NPY gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we used RIA and in situ hybridization histochemistry to determine if(More)
Extensive historical evidence from the drug abuse literature has provided support for the concept that there is functional communication between central nervous system (CNS) circuitries which subserve reward/motivation, and the regulation of energy homeostasis. This concept is substantiated by recent studies that map anatomical pathways, or which(More)
To test the hypothesis that diabetic hyperphagia results from insulin deficiency in the brain, diabetic rats (streptozotocin-induced) were given an intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of saline or insulin (at a dose that did not affect plasma glucose levels) for 6 days. Food and water intake were significantly increased in diabetic rats, but only food(More)
The authors hypothesized that insulin and leptin, hormones that convey metabolic and energy balance status to the central nervous system (CNS), decrease the reward value of food, as assessed by conditioned place preference (CPP). CPP to high-fat diet was blocked in ad-lib fed rats given intraventricular insulin or leptin throughout training and test or(More)
The hormones insulin, leptin, and ghrelin have been demonstrated to act in the central nervous system (CNS) as regulators of energy homeostasis, acting at medial hypothalamic sites. Here, we summarize research demonstrating that, in addition to direct homeostatic actions at the hypothalamus, CNS circuitry that subserves reward and is also a direct and(More)
Rats and humans avidly consume flavored foods that contain sucrose and fat, presumably due to their rewarding qualities. In this study, we hypothesized that the complex mixture of corn oil, sucrose, and flavor is more reinforcing than any of these components alone. We observed a concentration-dependent increase in reinforcers of sucrose solutions received(More)
To characterize the relationship between insulin levels in plasma and those in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we studied the kinetics of both the uptake of insulin into CSF from plasma and the turnover of insulin within the CSF compartment. Sustained physiological levels of euglycemic hyperinsulinemia (plasma insulin approximately 500 pM) did not alter CSF(More)
By acting in the brain, insulin suppresses food intake, whereas neuropeptide Y (NPY) has the opposite effect. Since fasting increases NPY gene expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and also lowers circulating insulin levels, we hypothesized that the anorexiant effect of insulin could result from insulin inhibition of NPY gene transcription in(More)
Neuropeptides have been implicated in the short-term regulation of food intake and the long-term control of body weight. Previous studies have shown that central administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY), the most abundant of these peptides in the brain, produces robust increases of food intake. We now report that NPY, at doses that stimulate food intake when(More)
Chronic intraventricular (IVT) insulin infusion suppresses food intake and body weight in the baboon. It has been hypothesized that one mechanism of this action may be enhancement of the effectiveness of satiety factors that regulate meal size. This hypothesis was supported by prior demonstration of a shift in the meal-suppressive effectiveness of(More)