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Structural changes of the androgen receptor (AR) may contribute to the development of resistance to endocrine therapy in prostatic carcinoma. We have isolated AR cDNA fragments from seven tumor specimens derived from patients with advanced metastatic prostatic tumors. In one specimen obtained from a patient who failed to respond to endocrine and cytotoxic(More)
Aberrant activation of the androgen receptor (AR) may be one of the mechanisms which contribute to progression of prostatic carcinoma to an androgen-independent stage. We investigated effects of growth factors on stimulation of the AR-mediated gene transcription in human prostatic tumor cell lines. DU-145 cells, which do not contain endogenous AR, were(More)
BACKGROUND The medical community lacks results from prospective controlled multicenter studies of the diagnostic efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) cystoscopy on tumor recurrence in patients with superficial bladder tumors. METHODS A prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 370 patients with nonmuscle-invasive(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels are frequently elevated in sera of patients with metastatic prostate cancer. IL-6 receptors are expressed in prostate cancer cell lines, as well as in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer tissue specimens. The androgen receptor (AR) is a key transcription factor that is present in all stages of prostate carcinoma, even(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is involved in regulation of immune reaction and cell growth and differentiation. It causes multifunctional responses ranging from inhibition of proliferation to promotion of cell survival. IL-6 effects may depend on experimental conditions such as passage numbers and serum composition. IL-6 signals in target tissues through the(More)
Nearly all primary prostatic carcinomas have been found to express the androgen receptor (AR) protein, which is the intracellular mediator of androgen action. To gain a better insight into the mechanisms of androgen independence of advanced prostatic carcinoma, it is important to know whether the AR is also present in metastases of androgen-independent(More)
OBJECTIVES An appropriate laparoscopic technique for diagnostic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in clinical Stage I testicular tumors is presented and its efficiency and morbidity are evaluated. METHODS A two-step procedure has been developed. In the first step, a ventral approach is used. The colon is dissected free, then the spermatic vein is(More)
Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play a pivotal role in the development and progression of various cancers. We have previously shown that SOCS-3 is expressed in prostate cancer, and its expression is inversely correlated with activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3. We hypothesized that SOCS-1, if expressed in(More)
We previously detected elevated transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1) serum levels in patients with invasive bladder carcinomas. In this study, we therefore investigated whether elevated serum levels correlate with enhanced TGF-beta expression in human bladder tumours. mRNA levels of TGF-beta1, -beta2 and -beta3 were reduced in bladder tumour tissue(More)
Recent studies indicate that androgen receptors are present in all histological types of prostatic tumours, in relapsed prostatic carcinomas and in tumour metastases, even those obtained from patients in whom endocrine therapy was unsuccessful. Several research groups have asked whether structurally altered androgen receptors might be present in human(More)