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We previously detected elevated transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1) serum levels in patients with invasive bladder carcinomas. In this study, we therefore investigated whether elevated serum levels correlate with enhanced TGF-beta expression in human bladder tumours. mRNA levels of TGF-beta1, -beta2 and -beta3 were reduced in bladder tumour tissue(More)
The androgen receptor (AR), a transcription factor that mediates the action of androgens in target tissues, is expressed in nearly all prostate cancers. Carcinoma of the prostate is the most frequently diagnosed neoplasm in men in industrialized countries. Palliative treatment for non-organ-confined prostate cancer aims to down-regulate the concentration of(More)
Advanced prostate cancer is treated by androgen ablation and/or androgen receptor (AR) antagonists. In order to investigate the mechanisms relevant to the development of therapy-resistant tumours, we established a new tumour model which closely resembles the situation in patients who receive androgen ablation therapy. Androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells were(More)
Human androgen receptor (AR) associates with coactivator or corepressor proteins that modulate its activation in the presence of ligand. Early studies on AR coactivators in carcinoma of the prostate were hampered because of lack of respective antibodies. Investigations at mRNA level revealed that most benign and malignant prostate cells express common(More)
Antihormonal and chemotherapy are standard treatments for nonorgan-confined prostate cancer. The effectivity of these therapies is limited and the development of alternative approaches is necessary. In the present study, we report on the use of the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines and their derivatives which mimic(More)
Several options for the endocrine treatment of non-organ-confined prostate cancer are available. They include surgical or medical removal of androgenic hormones or administration of non-steroidal anti-androgens. However, tumour progression after a period of remission of the disease inevitably occurs in virtually all patients. The androgen receptor (AR) is,(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine which is involved in regulation of growth of various malignant tumors. IL-6 binds to its receptor, which is composed of a ligand-binding and a signal-transducing subunit and activates pathways of signal transducers and activators of transcription and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In prostate(More)
Interactions between polypeptide growth factors and the androgen receptor (AR) are important for regulation of cellular events in carcinoma of the prostate. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), the prototype of heparin-binding growth factors, and the AR are commonly expressed in prostate cancer. bFGF diminished prostate-specific antigen protein in the(More)
Proliferative and secretory responses in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer LNCaP cells are regulated by steroid and peptide hormones and by differentiation-promoting substances. In the present study, we evaluated whether peripheral blood monocytes that exhibit anti-tumour activity in haematopoietic and solid tumours influence growth and secretion in the(More)
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