Alfred H. Schinkel

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BACKGROUND AND METHODS Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/MXR/ABCP) is a multidrug-resistance protein that is a member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette family of drug transporters. BCRP can render tumor cells resistant to the anticancer drugs topotecan, mitoxantrone, doxorubicin, and daunorubicin. To investigate the physiologic role of(More)
High expression of the Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) gene has been shown to be involved in resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. Knowledge of the localization of BCRP protein in normal tissues may help unravel the normal function of this protein. Therefore, we characterized the tissue distribution and cellular localization of BCRP in frozen(More)
Inhibitors of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) multidrug transporter are of interest as chemosensitizers for clinical drug resistance, for improving the pharmacokinetics of substrate chemotherapeutic drugs, and in functional assays of BCRP activity for tailoring chemotherapy. The fungal toxin fumitremorgin C (FTC) is a potent and specific(More)
The mouse mdr1a (also called mdr3) P-GP is abundant in the blood-brain barrier, and its absence in mdr1a (-/-) mice leads to highly increased levels of the drugs ivermectin, vinblastine, digoxin, and cyclosporin A in the brain. We show here that the drugs loperamide, domperidone, and ondansetron are transported substrates for the mouse mdr1a P-GP and its(More)
Active drug efflux transporters of the ATP binding cassette (ABC)-containing family of proteins have a major impact on the pharmacological behavior of most of the drugs in use today. Pharmacological properties affected by ABC transporters include the oral bioavailability, hepatobiliary, direct intestinal, and urinary excretion of drugs and drug-metabolites(More)
The canalicular (apical) membrane of the hepatocyte contains an ATP-dependent transport system for organic anions, known as the multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT). The deduced amino acid sequence of cMOAT is 49% identical to that of the human multidrug resistance- associated protein (MRP) MRP1, and cMOAT and MRP1 are members of the same(More)
The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRPABCG2) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette family of drug transporters and confers resistance to various anticancer drugs. We show here that mice lacking Bcrp1Abcg2 become extremely sensitive to the dietary chlorophyll-breakdown product pheophorbide a, resulting in severe, sometimes lethal phototoxic lesions on(More)
Two types of P-glycoprotein have been found in mammals: the drug-transporting P-glycoproteins and a second type, unable to transport hydrophobic anticancer drugs. The latter is encoded by the human MDR3 (also called MDR2) and the mouse mdr2 genes, and its tissue distribution (bile canalicular membrane of hepatocytes, B cells, heart, and muscle) suggests a(More)
Multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) belongs to the ATP binding cassette family of transporters. Its substrates include organic anions and anticancer drugs. We have used transport assays with vesicles derived from Sf9 insect cells overproducing MRP2 to study the interactions of drugs, organic anions, and bile acids with three MRP2 substrates:(More)
For the elimination of environmental toxins and metabolic waste products, the body is equipped with a range of broad-specificity transporters that are generally present in the liver, kidney, and intestine. The polyspecific organic cation transporters OCT1, 2, and 3 (SLC22A1-3) mediate the facilitated transport of a variety of structurally diverse organic(More)