Alfred Ferret

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Microorganisms in the rumen degrade nutrients to produce volatile fatty acids and synthesize microbial protein as an energy and protein supply for the ruminant, respectively. However, this fermentation process has energy (losses of methane) and protein (losses of ammonia N) inefficiencies that may limit production performance and contribute to the release(More)
Different concentrations (3, 30, 300, and 3000 mg/L of culture fluid) of garlic oil (GAR), diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DAD), allicin (ALL), and allyl mercaptan (ALM) were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a 50:50 forage:concentrate diet (17.7% crude protein; 30.7% neutral detergent fiber) to evaluate their effects on rumen(More)
Changes in short-term feeding behavior of dairy cows that occur with the onset of the health disorders ketosis, acute locomotory problems, and chronic lameness were investigated using data collected during previous experiments. The objective of the study was to describe and quantify those changes and to test their suitability as early indicators of disease.(More)
Four Holstein heifers (360 +/- 22 and 450 +/- 28 kg of BW in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) fitted with ruminal trocars were used in 4 x 4 Latin square designs to evaluate the effects on ruminal microbial fermentation of the following: Exp. 1, no additive, alfalfa extract (30 g/d, AEX), a mixture of cinnamaldehyde (0.18 g/d) and eugenol (0.09 g/d; CIE1), and(More)
Different doses of 12 plant extracts and 6 secondary plant metabolites were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a 50:50 forage:concentrate diet. Treatments were: control (no additive), plant extracts (anise oil, cade oil, capsicum oil, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, dill oil, fenugreek, garlic oil, ginger oil, oregano oil, tea tree oil, and(More)
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of several essential oil active compounds on rumen microbial fermentation. In the first experiment, 4 doses (5, 50, 500, and 5,000 mg/L) of 5 essential oil compounds were evaluated using in vitro 24-h batch culture of rumen fluid with a 60:40 forage:concentrate diet (18% crude protein; 30% neutral(More)
Six natural plant extracts and three secondary plant metabolites were tested at five doses (0, 0.3, 3, 30, and 300 mg/L) and two different pH (7.0 and 5.5) in a duplicate 9 x 5 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine their effects on in vitro microbial fermentation using ruminal fluid from heifers fed a high-concentrate finishing diet.(More)
Eight continuous culture fermentors inoculated with ruminal liquor from heifers fed a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet (17.6% crude protein, 28.0% neutral detergent fiber) were used in 3 replicated periods to study the effects of cinnamaldehyde (CIN) and garlic oil (GAR) on rumen microbial fermentation. Treatments were no additive (negative control); 1.25(More)
The efficiency of N utilization in ruminants is typically low (around 25%) and highly variable (10% to 40%) compared with the higher efficiency of other production animals. The low efficiency has implications for the production performance and environment. Many efforts have been devoted to improving the efficiency of N utilization in ruminants, and while(More)
Low ruminal pH may occur when feeding high-concentrate diets. However, because the reduction in pH occurs at the same time as the amount of concentrate fed increases, the changes observed in rumen fermentation may be attributed to pH or the type of substrate being fermented. Our objective was to determine the contribution of pH and type of substrate being(More)