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In this study we asked whether subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) alone, or in combination with l-dopa, modifies voluntary, spontaneous and reflex blinking in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Sixteen PD patients who underwent STN-DBS were studied in four experimental conditions: without STN-DBS and without l-dopa, STN-DBS alone,(More)
BACKGROUND Punding (the display of stereotyped, repetitive behaviors) is a relatively recently discovered feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Little is known about the prevalence and clinical characteristics of punding in PD. METHODS In this review, four large scientific databases were comprehensively searched for literature in relation to punding(More)
Axial motor signs-including gait impairment, postural instability and postural abnormalities-are common and debilitating symptoms in patients with advanced Parkinson disease. Dopamine replacement therapy and physiotherapy provide, at best, partial relief from axial motor symptoms. In carefully selected candidates, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established procedure for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. Several deep brain nuclei have been stimulated, producing a wide range of effects on the motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Long-term, high-quality evidence is available for stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus and globus(More)
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus represents the most important innovation for treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease. Prospective studies have shown that although the beneficial effects of this procedure are maintained at 5 years, axial motor features and cognitive decline may occur in the long term after the implants. In order to(More)
Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rapidly progressive encephalopathy that can occur in otherwise healthy children after common viral infections such as influenza and parainfluenza. Most ANE is sporadic and nonrecurrent (isolated ANE). However, we identified a 7 Mb interval containing a susceptibility locus (ANE1) in a family segregating recurrent(More)
Falling is a major clinical problem; especially, in elderly population as it often leads to fractures, immobilization, poor quality of life and life-span reduction. Given the growing body of evidences on the physiopathology of balance disorders in humans, in recent years the approach of research on falls has completely changed and new instruments and new(More)
Status dystonicus (SD) is a life threatening disorder that develops in patients with both primary and secondary dystonia, characterized by acute worsening of symptoms with generalized and severe muscle contractions. To date, no information is available on the best way to treat this disorder. We review the previously described cases of SD and two new cases(More)
The facial phenotype of psychogenic movement disorders has not been fully characterized. Seven tertiary-referral movement disorders centers using a standardized data collection on a computerized database performed a retrospective chart review of psychogenic movement disorders involving the face. Patients with organic forms of facial dystonia or any medical(More)
The effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on gait coordination and freezing of gait in patients with Parkinson's disease is incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which modulation of symmetry and coordination between legs by subthalamic deep brain stimulation alters the frequency and duration of freezing(More)