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In this study we asked whether subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) alone, or in combination with l-dopa, modifies voluntary, spontaneous and reflex blinking in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Sixteen PD patients who underwent STN-DBS were studied in four experimental conditions: without STN-DBS and without l-dopa, STN-DBS alone,(More)
Axial motor signs-including gait impairment, postural instability and postural abnormalities-are common and debilitating symptoms in patients with advanced Parkinson disease. Dopamine replacement therapy and physiotherapy provide, at best, partial relief from axial motor symptoms. In carefully selected candidates, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established procedure for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. Several deep brain nuclei have been stimulated, producing a wide range of effects on the motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Long-term, high-quality evidence is available for stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus and globus(More)
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus represents the most important innovation for treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease. Prospective studies have shown that although the beneficial effects of this procedure are maintained at 5 years, axial motor features and cognitive decline may occur in the long term after the implants. In order to(More)
Falling is a major clinical problem; especially, in elderly population as it often leads to fractures, immobilization, poor quality of life and life-span reduction. Given the growing body of evidences on the physiopathology of balance disorders in humans, in recent years the approach of research on falls has completely changed and new instruments and new(More)
The effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on gait coordination and freezing of gait in patients with Parkinson's disease is incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which modulation of symmetry and coordination between legs by subthalamic deep brain stimulation alters the frequency and duration of freezing(More)
Botox(®) and Dysport(®) are the preparations of botulinum neurotoxin most widely used for therapeutic purposes. Several studies have addressed the topic of the equivalency ratio (D/B ratio) to be used in clinical practice and whether a reliable value exists is still a matter of debate. To this purpose, we ideated a novel paradigm by retrospectively(More)
Although in recent years the relationship between cognition and gait in Parkinson's disease (PD) has received increasing attention, the specific connections between gait patterns and cognitive features are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to describe the gait patterns in patients affected by PD with or without mild cognitive impairment(More)
In a primate model of Parkinson's disease (PD), the benefit of extradural motor cortex stimulation (EMCS) was associated with high-frequency stimulation (130 Hz), whereas no significant motor improvement was achieved at 10 Hz or intermediate frequencies of stimulation. We report the case of a 72-year-old female patient affected by severe PD who underwent(More)
BACKGROUND Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare triplet repeat (CAG) disorder. Advanced, multi-centre, multi-national research frameworks are needed to study simultaneously multiple complementary aspects of HD. This includes the natural history of HD, its management and the collection of clinical information and biosamples for research. METHODS We report(More)