Alfonso D Lampen

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The clinical management of tacrolimus, a macrolide used as immunosuppressant after transplantation, is complicated by its narrow therapeutic index in combination with inter- and intraindividually variable pharmacokinetics. As a substrate of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzymes and P-glycoprotein, tacrolimus interacts with several other drugs used in(More)
Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is known to actively transport various anticancer drugs and to restrict the uptake of the food carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine from the gut lumen. The present study reveals that BCRP is involved in the transport of phase-2 metabolites of the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BP) in the human(More)
The widely used antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA), which is also used in migraine prophylaxis and the treatment of bipolar disorders, is also under trial as an anticancer agent. Despite its wide range of therapeutic applications, VPA also has two severe side effects: acute liver toxicity and teratogenicity. The mechanism of action for all these(More)
Industrial plasticizers such as phthalates can induce peroxisome proliferation. Some phthalates such as di-2-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate (DEHP) and its metabolites mono-2-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate and 2-ethyl-hexanoic acid are also known teratogens. Recently, we introduced two in vitro test systems consisting of F9 teratocarcinoma cell differentiation and activation(More)
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) as a product of the Maillard reaction is found in many foods. Estimated intakes range between 4 and 30  mg per person and day, while an intake of up to 350  mg can result from, e.g., beverages made from dried plums. In vitro genotoxicity was positive when the metabolic preconditions for the formation of the reactive(More)
We have previously reported that breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is involved in the transport of phase II metabolites of the food carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BP) in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. Furthermore, the expression of BCRP seemed most likely to be aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) dependent. Since numerous plant-derived anticarcinogens(More)
In general, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) are expressed in lower levels in the extrahepatic tissues than in the liver, making the former less relevant for the clearance of xenobiotics. Local metabolism, however, may lead to tissue-specific adverse responses, e.g. organ toxicities, allergies or cancer. This review summarizes the knowledge on the(More)
Acrolein is an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde formed by thermal treatment of animal and vegetable fats, carbohydrates and amino acids. In addition it is generated endogenously. As an electrophile, acrolein forms adducts with gluthathione and other cellular components and is therefore cytotoxic. Mutagenicity was shown in some in vitro tests. Acrolein forms(More)
Coumarin (1,2-benzopyrone) is occurring in food, and is also used in cosmetics. In order to perform a risk assessment for both oral and dermal exposure, we applied a physiologically based approach to model kinetics in humans by simulating both routes of exposure. The concentration-time profile in liver revealed a higher peak concentration (C(max-hep)) for(More)
Coumarin is a secondary phytochemical with hepatotoxic and carcinogenic properties. For the carcinogenic effect, a genotoxic mechanism was considered possible, but was discounted by the European Food Safety Authority in 2004 based on new evidence. This allowed the derivation of a tolerable daily intake (TDI) for the first time, and a value of 0.1 mg/kg body(More)