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The synaptic control of the astrocytic intracellular Ca2+ is crucial in the reciprocal astrocyte-neuron communication. Using electrophysiological and Ca2+ imaging techniques in rat hippocampal slices, we investigated the astrocytic Ca2+ signal modulation induced by synaptic terminals that use glutamate and acetylcholine. Ca2+ elevations were evoked by(More)
Astrocytes play active roles in brain physiology. They respond to neurotransmitters and modulate neuronal excitability and synaptic function. However, the influence of astrocytes on synaptic transmission and plasticity at the single synapse level is unknown. Ca(2+) elevation in astrocytes transiently increased the probability of transmitter release at(More)
Cannabinoid receptors play key roles in brain function, and cannabinoid effects in brain physiology and drug-related behavior are thought to be mediated by receptors present in neurons. Neuron-astrocyte communication relies on the expression by astrocytes of neurotransmitter receptors. Yet, the expression of cannabinoid receptors by astrocytes in situ and(More)
The idea that astrocytes merely provide structural and trophic support for neurons has been challenged by the demonstration that astrocytes can regulate neuronal calcium levels. However, the physiological consequences of astrocyte-neuron signalling are unknown. Using mixed cultures of rat hippocampal astrocytes and neurons we have determined functional(More)
Endocannabinoids and their receptor CB1 play key roles in brain function. Astrocytes express CB1Rs that are activated by endocannabinoids released by neurons. However, the consequences of the endocannabinoid-mediated neuron-astrocyte signaling on synaptic transmission are unknown. We show that endocannabinoids released by hippocampal pyramidal neurons(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission represents the cellular basis of learning and memory. Astrocytes have been shown to regulate synaptic transmission and plasticity. However, their involvement in specific physiological processes that induce LTP in vivo remains unknown. Here we show that in vivo cholinergic activity evoked by sensory(More)
Astrocytes exhibit a form of excitability and communication on the basis of intracellular Ca2+ variations (Cornell-Bell et al., 1990; Charles et al., 1991) that can be initiated by neuronal activity (Dani et al., 1992; Porter and McCarthy, 1996). A Ca2+ elevation in astrocytes induces the release of glutamate (Parpura et al., 1994; Pasti et al., 1997;(More)
The term 'tripartite synapse' refers to a concept in synaptic physiology based on the demonstration of the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Consistent with this concept, in addition to the classic 'bipartite' information flow between the pre- and postsynaptic neurons, astrocytes exchange information with the synaptic(More)
According to the classical view of the nervous system, the numerically superior glial cells have inferior roles in that they provide an ideal environment for neuronal-cell function. However, there is a wave of new information suggesting that glia are intimately involved in the active control of neuronal activity and synaptic neurotransmission. Recent(More)
The identification of the presence of active signaling between astrocytes and neurons in a process termed gliotransmission has caused a paradigm shift in our thinking about brain function. However, we are still in the early days of the conceptualization of how astrocytes influence synapses, neurons, networks, and ultimately behavior. In this Perspective,(More)