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Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world and currently the only one legally available to children and adolescents. The sale and use of caffeinated beverages has increased markedly among adolescents during the last decade. However, research on caffeine use and behaviors among adolescents is scarce. We investigate the relationship(More)
Using academic achievement as the key outcome variable, 7377 Icelandic adolescents were surveyed for cigarette smoking, alcohol use, daytime sleepiness, caffeine use, and potential confounders. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine direct and indirect effects of measured and latent variables in two models: the first with caffeine excluded(More)
OBJECTIVE Consumption of caffeinated sugar-sweetened beverages (CSSBs) among children and adolescents has increased markedly in recent years but the consequence of their consumption is not well understood. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of CSSBs in children aged 10–12 years and examine the relationship between CSSBs and common(More)
BACKGROUND Collection of valid and reliable surveillance data as a basis for school health promotion and education policy and practice for children and adolescence is of great importance. However, numerous methodological and practical problems arise in the planning and collection of such survey data that need to be resolved in order to ensure the validity(More)
Self-generated identification codes (SGICs) are an increasingly utilized methodological feature of longitudinal prevention research among adolescents. This study sought to test the differences between the matched and unmatched groups at baseline on a number of background, health, and well-being and risk behavior measures in a prevention study among 13- to(More)
This study tested a structural equation model to estimate the relationship between health behaviors, body mass index (BMI), and self-esteem and the academic achievement of adolescents. The authors analyzed survey data from the 2000 study of Youth in Iceland , a population-based, cross-sectional sample of 6,346 adolescents in Iceland. The model demonstrated(More)
Interest in the relationship between health behaviours and academic achievement has recently intensified in the face of an epidemic of childhood and adolescent obesity and converging school reforms in the United States and other nations with advanced economies. Epidemiologic research has demonstrated that poor diet and lack of adequate physical activity(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the association between health behavior indicators, school contentment, and academic achievement. METHODS Structural equation modeling with 5810 adolescents. RESULTS Our model explained 36% of the variance in academic achievement and 24% in school contentment. BMI and sedentary lifestyle were negatively related to school(More)
Cigarette smoking and alcohol use contribute substantially to the global burden of morbidity and premature mortality. Most use begins during adolescence, often with experimentation taking place between 11 and 15 years of age. This study examined the importance of perceived parental reactions to, and peer respect for, cigarette smoking and alcohol use.(More)
AIMS To investigate whether the secular trend in the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among 16- to 20-year-old adolescents in Iceland varied by levels of parental education and family structure. METHODS Odds ratios were calculated from repeated population-based, cross-sectional surveys comprising cohorts of 16- to 20-year-old Icelandic(More)