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Viral vectors can be used to express a variety of genes in vivo, that encode tumor associated antigens, cytokines, or accessory molecules. For vaccination purposes, the ideal viral vector should be safe and enable efficient presentation of expressed antigens to the immune system. It should also exhibit low intrinsic immunogenicity to allow for its(More)
Stool and plasma cytokine levels in 60 adults with acute shigellosis were studied by EIA at various intervals (0-45 days) after onset of diarrhea. Cytokine levels correlated with severity of disease. Significantly higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines peaked at onset of disease in stool of patients with severe disease (P < .05). In contrast,(More)
The humoral antibody response to Bacteroides fragilis infections in humans, with particular reference to ss. fragilis, was studied using an enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA). Phenol-water extracted polysaccharide fractions (PS) from B. fragilis ss. fragilis, ss. ovatus, ss. distasonis and ss. vulgatus were used as antigens. Antibody titer determinations were(More)
Lysogenization of Salmonella typhimurium with either of the bacteriophages A3 and A4 results in O-acetylation of the L-rhamnose residues of the O-polysaccharide chain of the lipopolysaccharide of the bacterial cell envelope. The O-acetyl group is found on both O-2 and O-3 of the L-rhamnosyl residues. This lysogenic conversion prevents the adsorption of the(More)
The binding of Shiga toxin isolated from the bacterium Shigella dysenteriae type 1 to a series of glycolipids and to cells or cell homogenates has been studied. Bound toxin was detected using either 125I-labeled toxin or specific monoclonal antibody and 125I-labeled anti-antibody. Overlay of toxin on thin-layer chromatograms with separated glycolipids and(More)
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied for immunological diagnosis of human tularemia, using lipopolysaccharide from Francisella tularensis as antigen. Sera collected from patients, healthy individuals, and vaccinated volunteers were investigated for antibodies against F. tularensis by ELISA and tube agglutination. In ELISA all sera were(More)
Expression of HLA-DR antigens and infiltration of T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4, CD8), cell activation marker (CD25), B cells (CD20), macrophages (CD68 and Ber-Mac 3) and natural killer cells (CD56) in the rectal mucosa of patients with bacillary dysentery and in healthy controls were studied in an effort to interpret the immunopathological changes taking place(More)
We report the purification and characterization of glucose-1-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, the first of five enzymes committed to biosynthesis of CDP-D-abequose from Salmonella enterica strain LT2. The purification was greatly facilitated by using a cloned rfbF gene encoding this enzyme. Pure enzyme was obtained by 64-fold enrichment in three(More)