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The status of the N-terminus of proteins is important for amino acid sequencing by Edman degradation, protein identification by shotgun and top-down techniques, and to uncover biological functions, which may be associated with modifications. In this study, we investigated the pyroglutamic acid formation from N-terminal glutamic acid residues in recombinant(More)
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugation to proteins has emerged as an important technology to produce drug molecules with sustained duration in the body. However, the implications of PEG conjugation to protein aggregation have not been well understood. In this study, conducted under physiological pH and temperature, N-terminal attachment of a 20 kDa PEG(More)
DNA-protein cross-links form when guanine undergoes a 1-electron oxidation in a flash-quench experiment, and the importance of reactive oxygen species, protein, and photosensitizer is examined here. In these experiments, a strong oxidant produced by oxidative quenching of a DNA-bound photosensitizer generates an oxidized guanine base that reacts with(More)
Short peptides have been tethered to a DNA-intercalating ruthenium complex to create a photoactivated cross-linking reagent. The ruthenium complex, [Ru(phen)(bpy')(dppz)]2+ (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bpy' = 4-(butyric acid)-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine, and dppz = dipyridophenazine), delivers the peptide to DNA and initiates the cross-linking reaction by(More)
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