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To measure time to initial presentation and assess factors influencing the decision to seek medical attention, we interviewed 243 patients undergoing sputum examination for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) at a rural health centre near Awassa, Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire was used. Median (mean+SD) patient delay was 4.3 (9.8+12.4) weeks. Delays(More)
OBJECTIVES (i) To determine patient delay - the time from the onset of symptoms to presentation at a health facility - and its causes in patients undergoing sputum smear examination in Cameroon; and (ii) to compare the results with those of a previous study in Ethiopia. METHODS A cross-sectional study of 243 consecutive patients using a structured(More)
SETTING St. Elizabeth Hospital, rural North-west Cameroon, an area with high tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence. OBJECTIVE To measure the time spent during routine sputum smear microscopy and assess whether reexamining slides for 10 min translates into higher case detection of smear-positive cases. DESIGN A prospective(More)
Large pericardial effusions are common in sub-Saharan Africa. They are most often caused by tuberculosis and are frequently associated with HIV infection. We report on a case of massive pericardial effusion in a 32-year-old HIV-positive male with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. This was found to be colonised by Propionibacter acnes, which is normally(More)
Smear diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) requires three sputum examinations over 2 days. We evaluated the performance of two sputum specimens obtained on a single day (the second specimen submitted 1 h after the first) against the standard 2-day method in rural Ethiopia. A total of 243 suspects were enrolled; 52 had confirmed PTB: 49 (94%) were(More)
Setting. Ethiopia, Nepal, Nigeria, and Yemen. Objective. To reduce the time to complete sputum microscopy. Design. Cross-sectional surveys enrolling 923 patients with chronic cough in the 4 countries and using similar protocols. Spot-morning-spot sputum specimens were collected. An additional sputum specimen (Xspot) was collected one hour after the first,(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the feasibility of completing the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in 1 day by collecting only on-the-spot specimens. METHODS Individuals with suspected TB attending district hospitals in Abuja submitted three sputum samples for routine diagnosis (the standard approach). One additional sample was collected 1 h after the first sputum (the(More)
Twenty-seven new derivatives of the 3-N,N-bis-(2-chlorethyl)-amino-4-methyl-benzoic-acid were synthesized and pharmacologically examined. The compounds showed to be highly active in the in vitro-vivo screening models (Crocker sarcoma 180, Sa-180; Friend virus leukemia, FVL) but less active in the in vivo screening models (leukemia L-1210; L-1210;(More)