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BACKGROUND A wide variety of antidepressants act as noncompetitive antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), but the relationship between this antagonism and the therapeutic effects of antidepressants is unknown. METHODS Antidepressant properties of the noncompetitive nAChR antagonist mecamylamine in the forced swim test were tested alone(More)
Recent evidence suggests that mu opioid receptors (MOR) are key regulators of hippocampal structure and function. For example, exogenous MOR agonists morphine and heroin negatively impact hippocampal function and decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Here we explored the role of MOR in the birth and survival of hippocampal progenitor cells by examining(More)
The subventricular zone (SVZ) is a major neurogenic region in the adult brain. Cells from the SVZ give rise to two populations of olfactory bulb interneurons: the granule cells and periglomerular (PG) cells. Currently, little is known about the signaling pathways that direct these newly generated neurons to become either granule or PG neurons. In the(More)
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis declines with age in parallel with decreased performance on a variety of hippocampal-dependent tasks. We measured the rate of cellular proliferation in the hippocampus of mice lacking the beta 2-subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (beta 2-/- mice) at three ages: young adult (3 months old), fully adult (7-10 months(More)
RATIONALE Knockout and transgenic mice provide a tool for assessing the mechanisms of action of antidepressants. The effectiveness of oral administration of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline (AMI) was assessed in C57BL/6J (B6) mice, a common genetic background on which knockout and transgenic mice are maintained. OBJECTIVES We determined whether(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication in the major natural target cells, CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages, is parallel in many aspects of the virus life cycle. However, it differs as to viral assembly and budding, which take place on plasma membranes in T cells and on endosomal membranes in macrophages. It has been postulated that cell(More)
The neuronal damage characteristic of HIV-1-mediated CNS diseases is inflicted by HIV-1 infected brain macrophages. Several steps of viral replication, including assembly and budding, differ between macrophages and T cells; it is likely that cell-specific host factors mediate these differences. We previously defined Annexin 2 (Anx2) as an HIV Gag binding(More)
Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus. Recent outbreaks of Zika virus disease in the Pacific Islands and the Region of the Americas have identified new modes of transmission and clinical manifestations, including adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, data on the epidemiology and clinical findings of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease(More)
To identify the amino acid sequence of the precursor of the Gla-containing peptide, epsilon-TxIX, from the venom of the marine snail Conus textile, the cDNA encoding this peptide was cloned from a C. textile venom duct library. The cDNA of the precursor form of epsilon-TxIX encodes a 67 amino acid precursor peptide, including an N-terminal prepro-region,(More)
On October 12, 2015, a county health department notified the Wyoming Department of Health of an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness among residents and staff members at a local correctional facility. The majority of ill persons reported onset of symptoms within 1-3 hours after eating lunch served at the facility cafeteria at noon on October 11. Residents(More)