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BACKGROUND Elevated phosphorylation of neurotrophin-regulated transcription factors, such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-response element binding protein (CREB), in the hippocampus has been proposed as a common mediator of antidepressant (ADT) efficacy in otherwise naive rodents. The intracellular factors by which ADTs and glucocorticoids, causal(More)
A history of exposure to stressors may be a predisposing factor for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after trauma. Extinction of conditioned fear appears to be impaired in PTSD, but the consequences of prior stress or excess glucocorticoid exposure for extinction learning are not known. We report that prior chronic exposure to the stress(More)
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