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The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of six candidate urinary biomarkers, kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin (IL)-18, cystatin C and alpha-1 microglobulin, measured 2 h following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for the early detection of acute(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Little is known about the performance of plasma cystatin C (CysC) in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and its utility in the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI). In this post hoc analysis, the goal was to determine whether plasma cystatin C, measured 2 hours after the conclusion of CPB, is a reliable marker(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) elicits an inflammatory response mediated partly by neutrophils, which are activated and recruited by interleukin-8 (IL-8). We hypothesized that acute kidney injury (AKI) following CPB might be mediated by IL-8 and examined the association of perioperative plasma IL-8 levels with AKI in a prospective cohort. METHODS(More)
Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase ameliorate atherosclerosis by both cholesterol-dependent and cholesterol-independent mechanisms. We examined whether HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors affect the expression and activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. Atorvastatin(More)
We have cloned the 5' upstream -1034 to +88 fragment of the human inducible nitric oxide synthase (hiNOS) gene and demonstrate its competence to promote luciferase gene transcription in vascular-smooth-muscle (VSM) cells and macrophages. Sequential 5' end-deletions localized positive regulatory elements of hiNOS transcription in VSM A7r5 cells downstream of(More)
Reactive oxygen species are important mediators of injury in acute renal failure (ARF). Although polymorphisms that affect key pro- and antioxidant enzymes might alter the susceptibility to oxidative stress-mediated injury, the use of genetic epidemiology for the study of oxidative stress-related genes has received little attention in ARF. The relationship(More)
We herein demonstrate competence of the 5' upstream region -1374 to +16 of the human growth factor-activatable Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE-1) gene to promote transcription of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene in cells of hepatic origin (HepG2), vascular-smooth-muscle origin (VSM A7r5) and fibroblasts (3T3). We also describe the mapping of the regulatory(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) is a transcription factor that mediates many cellular responses to tissue hypoxia, a common feature of acute kidney injury (AKI). Here we studied 241 patients with AKI and determined the relationship to adverse outcome of a non-synonymous polymorphism in the coding region of the HIF-1alpha gene where a C to T(More)
Pericytes regulate microvascular development and maturation through the control of endothelial cell motility, proliferation, and differentiation. The Rho GTPases have recently been described as key regulators of pericyte shape and contractile phenotype by signaling through the actin cytoskeleton in an isoactin-specific manner. In this report, we reveal that(More)
We have recently shown that regulatory element D (nucleotides -239 to -215) of the 0.25-kb promoter of the human growth factor-activatable Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE1) is important for gene transcription in cells of hepatic origin (Hep G2) and vascular smooth muscle origin (VSM A7r5). This element contains a sequence (nucleotides -230 to -222) with complete(More)