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Electric fields promote pore formation in both biological and model membranes. We clamped unmodified planar bilayers at 150-550 mV to monitor transient single pores for a long period of time. We observed fast transitions between different conductance levels reflecting opening and closing of metastable lipid pores. Although mean lifetime of the pores was 3(More)
The avoidability of binary patterns by binary cube-free words is investigated and the exact bound between unavoidable and avoidable patterns is found. All avoidable patterns are shown to be D0L-avoidable. For avoidable patterns, the growth rates of the avoiding languages are studied. All such languages, except for the overlap-free language, are proved to(More)
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