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Tonically active GABAA receptors: modulating gain and maintaining the tone
TLDR
Tonic GABAA-receptor-mediated signalling occurs in different brain regions, shows cell-type-specific differences in magnitude and pharmacology, and changes during brain development, and provides a potentially important new window onto neuronal information processing and pathological states such as epilepsy. Expand
GABA uptake regulates cortical excitability via cell type–specific tonic inhibition
TLDR
A role for cell type–dependent tonic inhibition in regulating cortical excitability is pointed to by reducing the tonic conductance in interneurons enhanced their excitability and the inhibitory drive to pyramidal cells. Expand
Multiple and Plastic Receptors Mediate Tonic GABAA Receptor Currents in the Hippocampus
TLDR
It is shown that α5GABAARs contribute to tonic currents in pyramidal cells only when ambient GABA concentrations increase (as may occur during increased brain activity), and multiple components of tonic GABAA receptor-mediated conductance that are activated by low GABA concentrations are revealed. Expand
Kainate receptor-dependent axonal depolarization and action potential initiation in interneurons
TLDR
It is reported that both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs recorded in interneurons were enhanced by low concentrations of kainate, but action potential-independent IPSCs were unaffected, suggesting that interneuron axons are directly depolarized. Expand
Tonic excitation or inhibition is set by GABAA conductance in hippocampal interneurons
TLDR
It is shown that ambient GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, can excite adult hippocampal interneurons, and this phenomenon suggests that the excitatory or inhibitory actions of the current are set not only by the reversal potential, but also by the conductance. Expand
Modulation of GABAergic Signaling among Interneurons by Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors
TLDR
It is reported that the selective group III metabotropic receptor agonist L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) depresses GABAergic transmission to interneurons more than to pyramidal neurons. Expand
Outwardly Rectifying Tonically Active GABAA Receptors in Pyramidal Cells Modulate Neuronal Offset, Not Gain
TLDR
It is shown that tonically active GABAA receptors in CA1 pyramidal cells show marked outward rectification, while the peaks of IPSCs exhibit a linear current–voltage relationship, and tonic GAB AA receptor-mediated currents have a minimal effect upon subthreshold membrane potential variation due to synaptic noise, but predominantly affect neurons at spiking threshold. Expand
Subcellular location of astrocytic calcium stores favors extrasynaptic neuron-astrocyte communication.
TLDR
The anatomic data do not support communication involving Ca(2+) stores in tripartite synapses, but rather point to extrasynaptic communication. Expand
GABA-Independent GABAA Receptor Openings Maintain Tonic Currents
TLDR
It is shown that in rat dentate granule cells in ex vivo hippocampal slices, tonic currents are predominantly generated by GABA-independent GABAA receptor openings, which are resistant to the competitive GABAAR antagonist SR95531 (gabazine), which at high concentrations acts as a partial agonist, but can be blocked by an open channel blocker, picrotoxin. Expand
Astrocytic Ca2+ signals are required for the functional integrity of tripartite synapses
TLDR
It is suggested that IP3-mediated astrocytic Ca2+ signaling correlates with the formation of functional tripartite synapses in the hippocampus, and is associated with behavioral impairments in spatial reference memory and remote contextual fear memory. Expand
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