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Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is primarily transmitted sexually. Dendritic cells (DCs) in the subepithelium transmit HIV-1 to T cells through the C-type lectin DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN). However, the epithelial Langerhans cells (LCs) are the first DC subset to encounter HIV-1. It has(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are thought to mediate HIV-1 transmission but it is becoming evident that different DC subsets at the sites of infection have distinct roles. In the genital tissues, two different DC subsets are present: the Langerhans cells (LCs) and the DC-SIGN(+)-DCs. Although DC-SIGN(+)-DCs mediate HIV-1 transmission, recent data demonstrate that(More)
Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) occurs frequently via breast-feeding. HIV-1 targets DC-SIGN+ dendritic cells (DCs) in mucosal areas that allow efficient transmission of the virus to T cells. Here, we demonstrate that the epithelial mucin MUC1, abundant in milk, efficiently bound to DC-SIGN on DC. The O-linked glycans(More)
We studied human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) chimeric viruses altering in their gp120 V1V2 and V3 envelope regions to better map which genetic alterations are associated with specific virus phenotypes associated with HIV-1 disease progression. The V1V2 and V3 regions studied were based on viruses isolated from an individual with progressing HIV-1(More)
BACKGROUND Oxygen sensing in mammalian cells is a conserved signaling pathway regulated by hypoxia inducible factor type 1 (HIF-1). Inadequate oxygen supply (hypoxia) is common to many pathological disorders where autophagy plays an import role. The aim of this study was the identification and characterization of novel HIF-1 target genes that promote(More)
Infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes is enhanced by the capture and subsequent transfer of HIV-1 by dendritic cells (DCs) via the interaction with C-type lectins such as the DC-specific ICAM-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN). Numerous HIV-1 envelope-directed neutralizing Abs have been shown to successfully block the infection of CD4(+) T lymphocytes. In this study,(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are important in HIV-1 transmission; DCs capture invading HIV-1 through the interaction of the gp120 oligosaccharides with the C-type lectin DC-SIGN and migrate to the lymphoid tissues where HIV-1 is transmitted to T cells. Thus, the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 is an attractive target to prevent interactions with DCs and(More)
BACKGROUND Statins have previously been shown to reduce the in vitro infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) through modulation of Rho GTPase activity and lipid raft formation at the cell surface, as well as by disrupting LFA-1 incorporation into viral particles. PRINCIPLE FINDINGS Here we demonstrate that treatment of an enriched CD4(+)(More)
Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum goes hand in hand with disulfide bond formation, and disulfide bonds are considered key structural elements for a protein's folding and function. We used the HIV-1 Envelope glycoprotein to examine in detail the importance of its 10 completely conserved disulfide bonds. We systematically mutated the cysteines in(More)
Dendritic cells can enhance the replication of HIV-1 in CD4(+) lymphocytes through the interaction of the gp120 envelope protein with such molecules as dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin. The variable loops of gp120 have previously been shown to modulate the interaction of HIV-1 with its principal receptor CD4 and(More)