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Today's energy functions are not able yet to distinguish reliably between correct and almost correct protein models. Improving these near-native models is currently a major bottle-neck in homology modeling or experimental structure determination at low resolution. Increasingly accurate energy functions are required to complete the "last mile of the protein(More)
We present a method for predicting folding rates of proteins from their amino acid sequences only, or rather, from their chain lengths and their helicity predicted from their sequences. The method achieves 82% correlation with experiment over all 64 "two-state" and "multistate" proteins (including two artificial peptides) studied up to now.
Guided by the recent success of empirical model predicting the folding rates of small two-state folding proteins from the relative contact order (CO) of their native structures, by a theoretical model of protein folding that predicts that logarithm of the folding rate decreases with the protein chain length L as L(2/3), and by the finding that the folding(More)
We demonstrate that chain length is the main determinant of the folding rate for proteins with the three-state folding kinetics. The logarithm of their folding rate in water (k(f)) strongly anticorrelates with their chain length L (the correlation coefficient being -0.80). At the same time, the chain length has no correlation with the folding rate for(More)
When a protein folds or unfolds, it has to pass through many half-folded microstates. Only a few of them can be seen experimentally. In a two-state transition proceeding with no accumulation of metastable intermediates [Fersht, A. R. (1995) Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 5, 79-84], only the semifolded microstates corresponding to the transition state can be(More)
A small number of folding patterns describe in outline most of the known protein globules, the same folds being found in non-homologous proteins with different functions. We show that the 'popular' folding patterns are those which, due to some thermodynamic advantages of their structure, can be stabilized by a lot of random sequences. In contrast, the folds(More)
Archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes represent the main kingdoms of life. Is there any trend for amino acid compositions of proteins found in full genomes of species of different kingdoms? What is the percentage of totally unstructured proteins in various proteomes? We obtained amino acid frequencies for different taxa using 195 known proteomes and all(More)
Since the discovery that the native structure of a globular protein can fold spontaneously (Anfinsen et al., 1961), numerous experimental and theoretical efforts have been made to elucidate folding pathways, intermediates, transition states, etc. (for recent reviews, see Bryngelson et al. Protein folding pathways are of great interest not only in(More)