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BACKGROUND In this paper we apply a novel agent-based simulation method in order to model intracellular reactions in detail. The simulations are performed within a virtual cytoskeleton enriched with further crowding elements, which allows the analysis of molecular crowding effects on intracellular diffusion and reaction rates. The cytoskeleton network leads(More)
We investigate a three-dimensional multiscale model of vascular tumour growth, which couples blood flow, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, nutrient/growth factor transport, movement of, and interactions between, normal and tumour cells, and nutrient-dependent cell cycle dynamics within each cell. In particular, we determine how the domain size, aspect(More)
The transduction of signals depends on the translocation of signaling molecules to specific targets. Undirected diffusion processes play a key role in the bridging of spaces between different cellular compartments. The diffusion of the molecules is, in turn, governed by the intracellular architecture. Molecular crowding and the cytoskeleton decrease(More)
Agent-based models are rigorous tools for simulating the interactions of individual entities, such as organisms or molecules within cells and assessing their effects on the dynamic behavior of the system as a whole. In context with bioprocess and biosystems engineering there are several interesting and important applications. This contribution aims at(More)
Angiogenesis marks an important turning point in the growth of solid tumours. Avascular tumours rely on diffusive transport to supply them with the nutrients they need to grow and, as a result, they typically grow to a maximal size of several millimetres in diameter. Growth stops when the rate at which nutrient-starved cells in the tumour centre die(More)
A more detailed description of the mathematical model is presented in this appendix. Our description starts at the smallest spatial scale, namely the subcellular layer. Then the cellular and diffusible layers are introduced, and finally the vascular layer is introduced. Interactions between these layers are highlighted in the final part of this section(More)
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