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A theoretical framework is developed to estimate the supersaturation in liquid, ice, and mixed-phase clouds. An equation describing supersaturation in mixed-phase clouds in general form is considered here. The solution for this equation is obtained for the case of quasi-steady approximation, that is, when particle sizes stay constant. It is shown that the(More)
The results of in-situ observations of the relative humidity (RH) in liquid, mixed and ice clouds at temperatures-45 o C < T a <-5 o C are presented here. The data were collected with the help of instrumentation deployed on the National Research Council (NRC) Convair 580. The humidity of the water vapor was measured by the Licor water vapor analyzer. The(More)
A theoretical framework has been developed describing nonequilibrium formation and maintenance of mixed-phase clouds. The necessary and sufficient conditions required to activate liquid water within a preexisting ice cloud, and thus convert it to mixed phase, are considered for three scenarios: (i) uniform ascent, (ii) harmonic vertical oscillations, and(More)
The aerosol indirect effect remains the most uncertain aspect of climate change modeling, calling for characterization of individual particles sizes and compositions with high spatial and temporal resolution. We present the first deployment of our single particle mass spectrometer (SPLAT II) operated in dual data acquisition mode to simultaneously measure(More)
Phase transformation and precipitation formation in mixed-phase clouds are usually associated with the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen (WBF) process in which ice crystals grow at the expense of liquid droplets. The evolution of mixed-phase clouds, however, is closely related to local thermodynamical conditions, and the WBF process is just one of three possible(More)
The time-course and spatial distribution of sugars and ions in carrot (Daucus carota L.) was studied at fine resolution using single cell (SiCSA) and tissue analysis. Four phases of osmolyte accumulation in the taproot were identified: an amino acid (germination) phase, when internal sources of amino acids provide seedlings with osmotica; an ion phase, when(More)
Article is made available in accordance with the publisher's policy and may be subject to US copyright law. Please refer to the publisher's site for terms of use. The MIT Faculty has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters. ABSTRACT The organized behavior of differential radar reflectivity (ZDR) is(More)
  • A. P. Khain, K. D. Beheng, +7 authors S. C. van den Heever
  • 2015
Most atmospheric motions of different spatial scales and precipitation are closely related to phase transitions in clouds. The continuously increasing resolution of large-scale and mesoscale atmospheric models makes it feasible to treat the evolution of individual clouds. The explicit treatment of clouds requires the simulation of cloud microphysics. Two(More)
Crystal structure investigations, electrical resistivity, and magnetic measurements have been performed for polycrystalline samples of intercalated compounds Cr(x)TiTe(2) with a Cr concentration up to x = 0.65. According to the room-temperature x-ray diffraction study of Cr(x)TiTe(2), the initial hexagonal crystal structure transforms to a monoclinic one(More)