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—The use of mobile devices is often limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries or battery cells over the load to exploit the recovery properties of the batteries helps to extend the overall… (More)

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t We develop a model-based framework which supports approximate quantitative verification of implantable cardiac pacemaker models over hybrid heart models. The framework is based on hybrid input–output automata and can be instantiated with user-specified pacemaker and heart models. For the specifications, we identify two… (More)

This paper considers the quantitative verification of discrete-time stochastic hybrid systems (DTSHS) against linear time objectives. The central question is to determine the likelihood of all the trajectories in a DTSHS that are accepted by an automaton on finite or infinite words. This verification covers regular and ω-regular properties, and thus… (More)

We study the following problem: given a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) C, and a linear real-time property provided as a deterministic timed automaton (DTA) A, what is the probability of the set of paths of C that are accepted by A (C satisfies A)? It is shown that this set of paths is measurable and computing its probability can be reduced to computing… (More)

This paper proposes a technique to synthesize paramet-ric rate values in continuous-time Markov chains that ensure the validity of bounded reachability properties. Rate expressions over variables indicate the average speed of state changes and are expressed using the polynomials over reals. The key contribution is an algorithm that approximates the set of… (More)

In this paper we study time-bounded verification of a finite continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) C against a real-time specification, provided either as a metric temporal logic (MTL) property ϕ, or as a timed automaton (TA) A. The key question is: what is the probability of the set of timed paths of C that satisfy ϕ (or are accepted by A) over a time… (More)

—Rate-adaptive pacemakers make use of sensors in order to automatically adjust the pacing rate according to the metabolic needs of the patient, thus overcoming the limitation of fixed-rate pacemakers that cannot ensure an adequate heart beat in cases of varying physical, mental or emotional activity. This feature significantly improves the quality of life… (More)

We are witnessing a huge growth in popularity of wearable and implantable devices equipped with sensors that are capable of monitoring a range of physiological processes and communicating the data to smartphones or to medical monitoring devices. Examples include fitness bands that can monitor the heartbeat and estimate the time you spend in deep sleep,… (More)

Embedded software is at the heart of implantable medical devices such as cardiac pacemakers, and rigorous software design method-ologies are needed to ensure their safety and reliability. This paper gives an overview of ongoing research aimed at providing software quality assurance methodologies for pacemakers. A model-based framework has been developed… (More)