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Cells in tissues and organs are continuously subjected to oxidative stress and free radicals on a daily basis. This free radical attack has exogenous or endogenous (intracellular) origin. The cells withstand and counteract this occurrence by the use of several and different defense mechanisms ranging from free radical scavengers like glutathione (GSH),(More)
Radiation can cause as well as cure cancer. The risk of developing radiation-induced cancer has traditionally been estimated from cancer incidence among survivors of the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.(1)) These data provide the best estimate of human cancer risk over the dose range for low linear energy transfer (LET) radiations, such as X- or(More)
Genome stability is essential for maintaining cellular and organismal homeostasis, but it is subject to many threats. One ubiquitous threat is from a class of compounds known as reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can indiscriminately react with many cellular biomolecules including proteins, lipids, and DNA to produce a variety of oxidative lesions. These(More)
Cancer immune evasion is a major stumbling block in designing effective anticancer therapeutic strategies. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding how cancers evade destructive immunity, measures to counteract tumor escape have not kept pace. There are a number of factors that contribute to tumor persistence despite having a normal(More)
Radiation quality and cellular oxygen concentration have a substantial impact on DNA damage, reproductive cell death and, ultimately, the potential efficacy of radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. To better understand and quantify the effects of radiation quality and oxygen on the induction of clustered DNA lesions, we have now extended the Monte(More)
Cancers harbor significant genetic heterogeneity and patterns of relapse following many therapies are due to evolved resistance to treatment. While efforts have been made to combine targeted therapies, significant levels of toxicity have stymied efforts to effectively treat cancer with multi-drug combinations using currently approved therapeutics. We(More)
DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a key non-homologous-end-joining (NHEJ) nuclear serine/threonine protein kinase involved in various DNA metabolic and damage signaling pathways contributing to the maintenance of genomic stability and prevention of cancer. To examine the role of DNA-PK in processing of non-DSB clustered DNA damage, we have used three(More)
The accumulated evidence in the literature indicates that a cluster of two or more lesions within one or two helical turns of the DNA is more challenging to repair than individual, widely dispersed lesions. The biological importance of clustered DNA lesions, especially complex double-strand breaks (DSB) and some types of non-DSB clusters (e.g., opposed(More)
The survival in patients with malignant gliomas still remains limited and novel treatment strategies are urgently needed. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) extracted from the Chinese herb Chuanxiong, has been suggested to have a therapeutic potential towards glioma primarily through its neural protection activity. However, the exact mechanisms correlating TMP's(More)
Ionizing radiation (IR) induces two classes of complex DNA damage, double-strand breaks (DSBs) and non-DSB bi-stranded oxidative clustered DNA lesions (OCDLs). OCDLs may consist of single strand breaks (SSBs), oxidized purines/pyrimidines and abasic sites within 5-10bp. These significant biological lesions are hypothesized to challenge the repair machinery(More)