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The promoter of the human KRAS proto-oncogene contains a structurally polymorphic nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) whose purine strand forms a parallel G-quadruplex structure (called 32R). In a previous work we reported that quadruplex 32R is recognized by three nuclear proteins: PARP-1, Ku70 and hnRNP A1. In this study we describe the interaction of… (More)
The murine KRAS promoter contains a G-rich nuclease hypersensitive element (GA-element) upstream of the transcription start site that is essential for transcription. Pulldown and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that this GA-element is bound by the Myc-associated zinc finger (MAZ) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) proteins. These… (More)
HRAS is a proto-oncogene involved in the tumorigenesis of urinary bladder cancer. In the HRAS promoter we identified two G-rich elements, hras-1 and hras-2, that fold, respectively, into an antiparallel and a parallel quadruplex (qhras-1, qhras-2). When we introduced in sequence hras-1 or hras-2 two point mutations that block quadruplex formation,… (More)
Guanidino-modified phthalocyanines are evaluated in vitro (polymerase-stop assays and FRET) and in cultured cells as G4-DNA ligands and modulators of gene transcription.
We prepared a series of anthrathiophenediones (ATPDs) with guanidino-alkyl side chains of different length (compounds 1, 10-13). The aim was to investigate their interaction with DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes, their uptake in malignant and nonmalignant cells, and their capacity to modulate gene expression and inhibit cell growth. Flow cytometry showed that the… (More)
The promoter of the KRAS proto-oncogene contains a critical nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) forming G-quadruplex structures that are recognized by nuclear proteins: PARP-1, Ku70 and hnRNPA1. Here we have studied the interaction between hnRNPA1 (and its derivative UP1) and the G-quadruplexes of KRAS by EMSA, FRET and CD experiments. FRET and CD showed… (More)