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Our knowledge of species and functional composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about variation across the world. By combining 22 newly sequenced faecal metagenomes of individuals from four countries with previously published data sets, here we identify three robust(More)
Sinorhizobium meliloti possesses three distinct catalases to cope with oxidative stress: two monofunctional catalases (KatA and KatC) and one bifunctional catalase-peroxydase (KatB). The katB gene is constitutively expressed during growth in batch culture and is not induced under oxidative stress conditions. In contrast, the expression of katA and katC(More)
Several reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are continuously produced in plants as by-products of aerobic metabolism or in response to stresses. Depending on the nature of the ROS and RNS, some of them are highly toxic and rapidly detoxified by various cellular enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. Whereas plants have many mechanisms with which(More)
Rhizobia form a symbiotic relationship with plants of the legume family to produce nitrogen-fixing root nodules under nitrogen-limiting conditions. We have examined the importance of glutathione (GSH) during free-living growth and symbiosis of Sinorhizobium meliloti. An S. meliloti mutant strain (SmgshA) which is unable to synthesize GSH due to a gene(More)
The symbiotic interaction between Medicago sativa and Sinorhizobium meliloti RmkatB(++) overexpressing the housekeeping catalase katB is delayed, and this delay is combined with an enlargement of infection threads. This result provides evidence that H(2)O(2) is required for optimal progression of infection threads through the root hairs and plant cell(More)
The characterization of an oxyR insertion mutant provides evidences that katA, which encodes the unique H2O2-inducible HPII catalase, is regulated by OxyR not only in free-living Sinorhizobium meliloti but also in symbiotic S. meliloti. Moreover, oxyR is expressed independently of exogenous H2O2 and downregulates its own expression in S. meliloti.
Bacteria of the Brucella genus are facultative intracellular class III pathogens. These bacteria are able to control the intracellular trafficking of their vacuole, presumably by the use of yet unknown translocated effectors. To identify such effectors, we used a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screen to identify interactions between putative human(More)
Complex microbial ecosystems are increasingly studied through the use of metagenomics approaches. Overwhelming amounts of DNA sequence data are generated to describe the ecosystems, and allow to search for correlations between gene occurrence and clinical (e.g. in studies of the gut microbiota), physico-chemical (e.g. in studies of soil or water(More)
"Candidatus Arthromitus" sp. strain SFB-mouse-NL (SFB, segmented filamentous bacteria) is a commensal bacterium necessary for inducing the postnatal maturation of homeostatic innate and adaptive immune responses in the mouse gut. Here, we report the genome sequence of this bacterium, which sets it apart from earlier sequenced mouse SFB isolates.
The human GI tract is a complex and still poorly understood environment, inhabited by one of the densest microbial communities on earth. The gut microbiota is shaped by millennia of evolution to co-exist with the host in commensal or symbiotic relationships. Members of the gut microbiota perform specific molecular functions important in the human gut(More)
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