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Tuberculosis is unique among the major infectious diseases in that it lacks accurate rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests. Failure to control the spread of tuberculosis is largely due to our inability to detect and treat all infectious cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in a timely fashion, allowing continued Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission within(More)
Vaccinia virus immunization provides lifelong protection against smallpox, but the mechanisms of this exquisite protection are unknown. We used polychromatic flow cytometry to characterize the functional and phenotypic profile of CD8(+) T cells induced by vaccinia virus immunization in a comparative vaccine trial of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)(More)
Functional and phenotypic characterization of virus-specific CD8 T cells against cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, influenza (flu), and HIV-1 were performed on the basis of the ability of CD8 T cells to secrete IFN-gamma and IL-2, to proliferate, and to express CD45RA and CCR7. Two functional distinct populations of CD8 T cells were identified: (i) dual(More)
BACKGROUND Cytokine flow cytometry (CFC) or intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) can quantitate antigen-specific T cell responses in settings such as experimental vaccination. Standardization of ICS among laboratories performing vaccine studies would provide a common platform by which to compare the immunogenicity of different vaccine candidates across(More)
The factors responsible for the phenotypic heterogeneity of memory CD4 T cells are unclear. In the present study, we have identified a third population of memory CD4 T cells characterized as CD45RA(+)CCR7(-) that, based on its replication history and the homeostatic proliferative capacity, was at an advanced stage of differentiation. Three different(More)
The EuroVacc 02 phase I trial has evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a prime-boost regimen comprising recombinant DNA and the poxvirus vector NYVAC, both expressing a common immunogen consisting of Env, Gag, Pol, and Nef polypeptide domain from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 clade C isolate, CN54. 40 volunteers were randomized to receive DNA C(More)
We studied CD8 T cell responses against HIV-1, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and influenza in 128 subjects and demonstrate that polyfunctional CD8 T cell responses, also including IL-2 production and Ag-specific proliferation, are predominantly driven by virus epitopes restricted by HLA-B alleles. Interestingly, these protective CD8 T cells are(More)
Immune-based assays are promising tools to help to formulate diagnosis of active tuberculosis. A multiparameter flow cytometry assay assessing T-cell responses specific to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the combination of both CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses accurately discriminated between active tuberculosis and latent infection.
HIV-1- and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD4 T-cell-mediated antiviral immunity was evaluated by assessing the frequency of interleukin 2 (IL-2)- and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma)-secreting cells following antigen-specific stimulation in blood and lymph node. HIV-1-infected subjects with progressive disease at early stage of infection with no previous(More)
The most common human viruses have different abilities to establish persistent chronic infection. Virus-specific T-cell responses are critical in the control of virus replication and in the prevention of disease in chronic infection. A large number of phenotypic markers and a series of functions have been used to characterize virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+(More)