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An open chromatin largely devoid of heterochromatin is a hallmark of stem cells. It remains unknown whether an open chromatin is necessary for the differentiation potential of stem cells, and which molecules are needed to maintain open chromatin. Here we show that the chromatin remodelling factor Chd1 is required to maintain the open chromatin of(More)
Pluripotent stem cells can be derived from embryos or induced from adult cells by reprogramming. They are unique among stem cells in that they can give rise to all cell types of the body. Recent findings indicate that a particularly 'open' chromatin state contributes to maintenance of pluripotency. Two principles are emerging: specific factors maintain a(More)
The chromatin template imposes an epigenetic barrier during the process of somatic cell reprogramming. Using fibroblasts derived from macroH2A double knockout (dKO) mice, here we show that these histone variants act cooperatively as a barrier to induced pluripotency. Through manipulation of macroH2A isoforms, we further demonstrate that macroH2A2 is the(More)
The Polycomb Group (PcG) of chromatin modifiers regulates pluripotency and differentiation. Mammalian genomes encode multiple homologs of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) components, including five orthologs of the Drosophila Polycomb protein (Cbx2, Cbx4, Cbx6, Cbx7, and Cbx8). We have identified Cbx7 as the primary Polycomb ortholog of PRC1(More)
Understanding the transcriptional regulation of pluripotent cells is of fundamental interest and will greatly inform efforts aimed at directing differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells or reprogramming somatic cells. We first analyzed the transcriptional profiles of mouse ES cells and primordial germ cells and identified genes upregulated in pluripotent(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic regulation is key to the maintenance of the stem cell state. Chromatin is the physiological form of eukaryotic genomes and the substrate for epigenetic marking, including DNA methylation, post-translational modifications of histones and the exchange of core histones with histone variants. The chromatin template(More)
Several methods allow reprogramming of differentiated somatic cells to embryonic stem cell-like cells. However, the process of reprogramming remains inefficient and the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we report the optimization of somatic cell fusion with embryonic stem cells in order to provide an efficient, quantitative assay(More)
Histone variants are emerging as key regulatory molecules in cancer. We report a unique role for the H2A.Z isoform H2A.Z.2 as a driver of malignant melanoma. H2A.Z.2 is highly expressed in metastatic melanoma, correlates with decreased patient survival, and is required for cellular proliferation. Our integrated genomic analyses reveal that H2A.Z.2 controls(More)
Perkinsus atlanticus is a pathogenic protist that infects the clam Ruditapes decussatus. Although it was recently proposed that the genus Perkinsus belongs to a new phylum, Perkinsozoa, in the infra-kingdom Alveolata, there remain different opinions about whether this genus should form a phylum on its own and consequently divergent views about its taxonomic(More)
In 1998, two distinct and exciting scientific fields emerged which have profoundly shaped the current direction of biomedical research. The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) and the derivation of human embryonic stem (ES) cells have yielded exciting new possibilities for researchers and clinicians alike. While fundamentally different, aspects from these(More)