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The biochemical characteristics of hemorrhagic metalloproteinases isolated from snake venoms are reviewed, together with their role in the pathogenesis of the local tissue damage characteristic of crotaline and viperine snake envenomations. Venom metalloproteinases differ in their domain structure. Some enzymes comprise only the metalloproteinase domain,(More)
Zinc-dependent metalloproteinases are responsible for the hemorrhagic activity characteristic of viperid snake venoms. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are classified in various groups (P-I-IV), according to their domain composition. P-III SVMPs, comprising metalloproteinase, disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains, exert more potent hemorrhagic(More)
Envenomations by the snake Bothrops asper are characterized by prominent local tissue damage (i.e. myonecrosis), blistering, hemorrhage and edema. Various phospholipases A2 and metalloproteinases that induce local pathological alterations have been purified from this venom. Since these toxins induce a conspicuous inflammatory response, it has been(More)
The pathological alterations induced by neuwiedase, a 22 kDa class P-I metalloproteinase from the venom of the South American pit viper Bothrops neuwiedi, were studied in mice. Neuwiedase was devoid of hemorrhagic activity when tested in the skin up to a dose of 200 microgram, and also after intramuscular injection in the gastrocnemius. However, it induced(More)
BACKGROUND To unravel the strategy by which Brucella abortus establishes chronic infections, we explored its early interaction with innate immunity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Brucella did not induce proinflammatory responses as demonstrated by the absence of leukocyte recruitment, humoral or cellular blood changes in mice. Brucella hampered(More)
The historical development of discoveries and conceptual frames for understanding the hemorrhagic activity induced by viperid snake venoms and by hemorrhagic metalloproteinases (SVMPs) present in these venoms is reviewed. Histological and ultrastructural tools allowed the identification of the capillary network as the main site of action of SVMPs. After(More)
The therapy of snakebite envenomation has been based on the parenteral administration of animal-derived antivenoms. Despite the success of this treatment at reducing the impact of snakebite mortality and morbidity, mostly due to their capacity to neutralize systemically-acting toxins, antivenoms are of relatively low efficacy in the prevention of(More)
Hemorrhage is one of the most significant effects in envenomings induced by viperid snakebites. Damage to the microvasculature, induced by snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs), is the main event responsible for this effect. The precise mechanism by which SVMPs disrupt the microvasculature has remained elusive, although recent developments provide valuable(More)
The venom of the snake Bothrops asper, the most important poisonous snake in Central America, evokes an inflammatory response, the mechanisms of which are not well characterized. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether B. asper venom and its purified toxins--phospholipases and metalloproteinase--activate the complement system and the(More)
Aqueous extract from Casearia sylvestris leaves, a typical plant from Brazilian open pastures, was able to neutralize the hemorrhagic activity caused by Bothrops asper, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops neuwiedi and Bothrops pirajai venoms. It also neutralized two hemorrhagic metalloproteinases from Bothrops asper venom. Proteolytic activity(More)