Alexandra Reis

Learn More
Learning to read and write generates new rules within the language processing systems. These new rules significantly change the manner in which some operations are performed. This finding was studied, by comparing the performance of literate and illiterate persons in several tasks. It was found that illiterate individuals (1) had difficulties in repeating(More)
Alphabetic orthographies differ in the transparency of their letter-sound mappings, with English orthography being less transparent than other alphabetic scripts. The outlier status of English has led scientists to question the generality of findings based on English-language studies. We investigated the role of phonological awareness, memory, vocabulary,(More)
The study of illiterate subjects, which for specific socio-cultural reasons did not have the opportunity to acquire basic reading and writing skills, represents one approach to study the interaction between neurobiological and cultural factors in cognitive development and the functional organization of the human brain. In addition the naturally occurring(More)
Previous behavioral and functional neuroimaging data indicate that certain aspects of phonological processing may not be acquired spontaneously, but are modulated by learning an alphabetic written language, that is, learning to read and write. It appears that learning an alphabetic written language modifies the auditory-verbal (spoken) language processing(More)
Learning a specific skill during childhood may partly determine the functional organization of the adult brain. This hypothesis led us to study oral language processing in illiterate subjects who, for social reasons, had never entered school and had no knowledge of reading or writing. In a brain activation study using PET and statistical parametric mapping,(More)
The modulatory influence of literacy on the cognitive system of the human brain has been indicated in behavioral, neuroanatomic, and functional neuroimaging studies. In this study we explored the functional consequences of formal education and the acquisition of an alphabetic written language on two- and three-dimensional visual naming. The results show(More)
Variations in the individual anatomy of the corpus callosum have been reported in several conditions. There seem to be genetic influencing factors, but it is impossible to rule out some environmental ones. This study focuses on the question of the environmental factors, using formal learning to read and write as the main difference in the groups to be(More)
Educational level of subjects is a variable often neglected in neuropsychological studies. However, there are pieces of evidence to suggest that illiterate subjects may perform worse than literate subjects in some tests. Visual naming is one of the tasks where a poor performance was reported in illiterate populations. The present study addresses this(More)
The current understanding of hemispheric interaction is limited. Functional hemispheric specialization is likely to depend on both genetic and environmental factors. In the present study we investigated the importance of one factor, literacy, for the functional lateralization in the inferior parietal cortex in two independent samples of literate and(More)
In this study, we systematically review the scientific literature on the effect of color on object recognition. Thirty-five independent experiments, comprising 1535 participants, were included in a meta-analysis. We found a moderate effect of color on object recognition (d=0.28). Specific effects of moderator variables were analyzed and we found that color(More)