Alexandra Paul

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OBJECT Outcome studies for spine surgery rely on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) to assess treatment effects. Commonly used health-related quality-of-life questionnaires include the following scales: back pain and leg pain visual analog scale (BP-VAS and LP-VAS); the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI); and the EuroQol-5D health survey (EQ-5D). A shortcoming(More)
Basic concepts and terminology for trustworthy software systems are discussed. Our discussion of definitions for terms in the domain of trustworthy software systems is based on former achievements in dependable, trustworthy and survivable systems. We base our discussion on the established literature and on approved standards. These concepts are discussed in(More)
INTRODUCTION Aneurysm recurrence is a principle limitation of endovascular coiling procedures, with recurrence rates reported of >30%. The adjunct use of self-expandable stents has revolutionized the treatment of intracranial aneurysms, especially for complex morphologies, wide necks or unfavorable dome to neck ratios. However, further investigation into(More)
With accelerating rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes world-wide, interest in studying the adipocyte and adipose tissue is increasing. Human adipose derived stem cells--differentiated to adipocytes in vitro--are frequently used as a model system for white adipocytes, as most of their pathways and functions resemble mature adipocytes in vivo. However, these(More)
The pipeline embolization device (PED) is a revolutionary tool for the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms by flow diversion. Treatment using the PED often requires considerable manipulation and customization by the neurointerventionalist at the time of deployment. Proper use of the PED involves a novel set of techniques and associated jargon,(More)
BACKGROUND The growing number of community hospitals with neurointerventional services over the past decade has changed the type and complexity of cerebral aneurysms referred to tertiary centers. The authors hypothesized that this would be reflected in changes in the location frequencies of aneurysms treated now compared to before the widespread institution(More)
OBJECT The authors review their ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt revisions over a 3-year period to determine the rate of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and subsequent need for re-revision. METHODS Review of medical records identified 35 pediatric patients who underwent 52 VP shunt revisions between 2009 and 2012. The presence and amount of IVH as(More)
Hydrogels have been developed as extracellular matrix (ECM) mimics both for therapeutic applications and basic biological studies. In particular, elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) hydrogels, which can be tuned to mimic several biochemical and physical characteristics of native ECM, have been constructed to encapsulate various types of cells to create in vitro(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Flow diverters are an exciting new class of endovascular devices that treat aneurysms by curative reconstruction of the parent artery. The Pipeline embolization device (PED) is the first FDA-approved intracranial flow diverting device available in the USA. This paper presents periprocedural results with the device in a series of 35(More)
BACKGROUND The Pipeline embolization device (PED) is a new endovascular option for wide-necked or fusiform anterior circulation aneurysms that were classically treated by coil embolization with adjunctive use of a stent. However, stent-coiling incurs significant equipment and implant costs. OBJECTIVE To determine whether PED embolization is more(More)