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BACKGROUND Healthcare professionals' participation in short-term medical missions to low and middle income countries (LMIC) to provide healthcare has become common over the past 50 years yet little is known about the quantity and quality of these missions. The aim of this study was to review medical mission publications over 25 years to better understand(More)
National health systems need strengthening if they are to meet the growing challenge of chronic diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. By application of an accepted health-systems framework to the evidence, we report that the factors that limit countries' capacity to implement proven strategies for chronic diseases relate to the way in which(More)
OBJECTIVES Limited evidence is available on HIV, aging and comorbidities in sub-Saharan Africa. This article describes the prevalence of HIV and chronic comorbidities among those aged 50 years and older in South Africa using nationally representative data. DESIGN The WHO's Study of global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) was conducted in South Africa in(More)
BACKGROUND Most previous literature on urban/rural differences in road crashes has a primary focus on severe injuries or deaths, which may be largely explained by variations of medical resources. Little has been reported on police-reported crashes by geographical location, or crash type and severity, especially among young drivers. METHODS DRIVE is a(More)
Although smoking is an established causal factor for upper aero digestive tract cancer (UADTC), most of the evidence originates from the West. Thus, we analysed data from 455,409 subjects in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. Over a median of around six years follow-up, 371 deaths from UADTC were observed. The hazard ratio (95% confidence(More)
Health care costs incurred prior to the appropriate patient-provider transaction (i.e., transaction costs of access to health care) are potential barriers to accessing health care in low- and middle-income countries. This paper explores these transaction costs and their implications for health system governance through a cross-sectional survey of adult(More)
OBJECTIVE Epilepsy is a common and often highly stigmatized disorder. Several international organizations indicate a need to assess the stigma that exists and to develop and evaluate interventions to dispel myths about epilepsy. METHODS A stratified cluster randomized controlled trial evaluated whether an epilepsy education program (intervention)(More)
OBJECTIVE Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in the world, yet it is still widely misunderstood. A lack of knowledge and negative attitudes about epilepsy are largely blamed for the stigma felt by people with epilepsy and their families. Recent calls for research into stigma have been made by the World Health Organization and international(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Women are relatively protected from cardiovascular events; they are 3 times as likely as men to survive to age 90 years. Although clinical trials show an excess of thrombotic events with estrogen/progestin hormone replacement therapy, much experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that estrogen may have beneficial effects on(More)