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1. Most segments of the gastrointestinal tract secrete HCO3-, but the molecular nature of the secretory mechanisms has not been identified. We had previously speculated that the regulator for intestinal electrogenic HCO3- secretion is the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) channel. To prove this hypothesis, we have now measured HCO3- secretion(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Duodenal bicarbonate secretion is in part mediated by an apical Cl-/HCO3- exchanger of unknown molecular nature. The recently discovered dra (down-regulated in adenoma) gene encodes a transport protein (DRA) for SO4(2-), Cl-, and HCO3-. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DRA may be the duodenal apical Cl-/HCO3- exchanger. (More)
Macrophages are thought to represent a first line of defense in anti-tumor immunity. Despite infiltration by microglial cells, however, malignant gliomas are still highly aggressive tumors. We here identify monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) as a critical chemoattractant for glioma-infiltrating microglial cells. MCP-1-transfected rat CNS-1 gliomas(More)
PURPOSE The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, or "statins", are used as cholesterol-lowering agents worldwide. This review, focused on recent experimental and clinical data, summarizes general mechanisms of statin actions underlying neuroprotective effects in the central nervous system (CNS) and presents evidence for(More)
The retina is an easily accessible part of the CNS with a well-defined cytological architecture. It allows for detailed study of the regulation of neurogenesis, determinants of cell fate specification, and signals for cell survival versus programmed cellular death during development. Within the retina, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the only neurons(More)
To investigate the potential of a clinical 3 T scanner to perform MRI of small rodents. Different dedicated small animal coils and several imaging sequences were evaluated to optimize image quality with respect to SNR, contrast and spatial resolution. As an application, optimal grey-white-matter contrast and resolution were investigated for rats.(More)
The cytokine hormone erythropoietin (EPO) has proved neuroprotective in CNS injury, and clinical trials for ischemic stroke are ongoing. The capability of EPO to restore postmitotic CNS architecture and function by fibre regeneration has not been examined. Here, we compared in vitro outgrowth capacity of adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) following optic(More)
Following transection of the optic nerve (ON) in the adult rat, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) undergo degeneration, and within 14 days 85% of axotomized RGCs die by apoptosis. Adenoviral delivery of the mammalian caspase inhibitor X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (Ad.XIAP) to the ON stump leads to expression exclusively in RGCs and rescues 18.9%(More)
This protocol details a tissue culture technique that allows for quantified regeneration studies on adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), that is, CNS neurons. The method may also allow for elucidation of molecular cues, for example of signals relevant in neuronal survival and axon regeneration. The procedure relies on fractioned stripe culture of previously(More)
One of the obstacles to efficient vector-mediated gene transfer to the CNS is limited transduction of target neurons. The VP22 tegument protein of HSV-1 can cross biological membranes and translocate the VP22 protein from primarily transfected cells to many surrounding cells in vitro. Here, we employed an adenoviral vector coding for a VP22-GFP fusion(More)