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The retina is an easily accessible part of the CNS with a well-defined cytological architecture. It allows for detailed study of the regulation of neurogenesis, determinants of cell fate specification, and signals for cell survival versus programmed cellular death during development. Within the retina, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the only neurons(More)
Macrophages are thought to represent a first line of defense in anti-tumor immunity. Despite infiltration by microglial cells, however, malignant gliomas are still highly aggressive tumors. We here identify monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) as a critical chemoattractant for glioma-infiltrating microglial cells. MCP-1-transfected rat CNS-1 gliomas(More)
The development of the retino-tectal projection as part of the central visual pathway is accomplished around postnatal day (P) 10-14 in rodents, and trophic factors are important for topographic refinement of this projection. Emerging data indicate that GDNF may influence synaptic plasticity of this projection. To date, maturation-dependent kinetics of GDNF(More)
The cytokine hormone erythropoietin (EPO) has proved neuroprotective in CNS injury, and clinical trials for ischemic stroke are ongoing. The capability of EPO to restore postmitotic CNS architecture and function by fibre regeneration has not been examined. Here, we compared in vitro outgrowth capacity of adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) following optic(More)
Following transection of the optic nerve (ON) in the adult rat, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) undergo degeneration, and within 14 days 85% of axotomized RGCs die by apoptosis. Adenoviral delivery of the mammalian caspase inhibitor X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (Ad.XIAP) to the ON stump leads to expression exclusively in RGCs and rescues 18.9%(More)
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are stress proteins that mediate protein stabilization in various tissues and protect cells from environmental stress. Novel evidence suggests that overexpression of the small heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) in neurons protects against neurotoxic stimuli and may act as an inhibitor of neurodegeneration. Overexpression of Hsps has(More)
This protocol details a tissue culture technique that allows for quantified regeneration studies on adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), that is, CNS neurons. The method may also allow for elucidation of molecular cues, for example of signals relevant in neuronal survival and axon regeneration. The procedure relies on fractioned stripe culture of previously(More)
In the naïve adult rodent eye cell proliferation does not occur. The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate if quiescent putative progenitor-like cells within the adult mouse eye can be activated by optic nerve (ON) injury. For a comprehensive analysis, three areas were assessed: the ON, the neural retina, and the ciliary body (CB). Two lesion types were(More)
NF-κB is dually involved in neurogenesis and brain pathology. Here, we addressed its role in adult axoneogenesis by generating mutations of RelA (p65) and p50 (also known as NFKB1) heterodimers of canonical NF-κB. In addition to RelA activation in astrocytes, optic nerve axonotmesis caused a hitherto unrecognized induction of RelA in growth-inhibitory(More)