Alexandra K. Schnell

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Animals attempt to maximize their reproductive fitness by employing discrimination tactics that increase their fertilization success. Semelparous species are faced with high energy and time constraints. These constraints are predicted to affect the extent of discrimination tactics that may be employed. The semelparous giant Australian cuttlefish, Sepia(More)
Many animals produce multiple displays during agonistic interactions, but the roles of these displays often remain ambiguous. The hierarchical signaling hypothesis has been proposed to explain their occurrence and posits that different displays convey different levels of aggressive intent, allowing signalers to communicate graded series of threats. This(More)
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