BACKGROUND Although injection treatments for ulcer haemostasis seem to be effective, recurrent bleeding remains a serious problem. Large randomised clinical trials are required to show differences between treatment modalities for gastrointestinal bleeding. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of repeated endoscopic injection of… (More)
BACKGROUND This phase II study evaluated the safety and activity of ipilimumab, a fully human mAb that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, in patients with advanced melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with previously treated, unresectable stage III/stage IV melanoma received 10 mg/kg ipilimumab every 3 weeks for four cycles (induction) followed… (More)
The reported rates for tumour cell involvement in the locoregional lymph nodes of colorectal cancer vary greatly, depending on the method used and case selection. In order to further evaluate the clinical value of molecular biologic detection of tumour cells we investigated 102 histologically tumour-free (pN0) regional lymph nodes from 51 consecutive,… (More)
Pr ecis: The prevalent cancer-cell oriented view of carcinogenesis risk neglects the important contribution of population-level interactions during tumor progression as vital modulators of that risk. Pr ecis: These findings are important because they establish a causal link between hypoxia and tumor escape from T cell–mediated immunity, and they open new… (More)
Metastasis is a multistep process characterized by the ability of tumor cells to "communicate" and to interact with their microenvironment to establish tumors in distant organs. A significant proportion of the metastatic microenvironment consists of leukocytes, mostly of the innate immune system, contributing to tumor invasion and outgrowth.