Learn More
At least six major steps are required for secreted thyroid hormone (TH) to exert its action on target tissues. Mutations interfering with three of these steps have been so far identified. The first recognized defect, which causes resistance to TH, involves the TH receptor beta gene and has been given the acronym RTH. Occurring in approximately 1 per 40,000(More)
Three genes, TTF1, TTF2, and PAX8, involved in thyroid gland development and migration have been identified. Yet systematic screening for defects in these genes in thyroid dysgenesis gave essentially negative results. In particular, no TTF1 gene defects were found in 76 individuals with thyroid dysgenesis even though a deletion of this gene in the mouse(More)
Thyroid hormone (TH) action is mediated principally through binding of the hormone ligand, 3,3,5-triiodothyronine (T3), to TH receptors (TRs). This hormone-receptor interaction recruits other proteins to form complexes that regulate gene expression by binding to DNA sequences in the promoter of target genes. We recently described an extranuclear mechanism(More)
Thyroid hormones influence brain development through the control of gene expression. The concentration of the active hormone T(3) in the brain depends on T(3) transport through the blood-brain barrier, mediated in part by the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8/MCT8) and the activity of type 2 deiodinase (D2) generating T(3) from T(4). The relative roles of(More)
BACKGROUND Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare condition usually diagnosed in patients with classic thyroid function tests (TFTs) of elevated thyroid hormone levels with nonsuppressed TSH. The presence of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) can confound the clinical diagnosis of RTH. A family was evaluated because several members had elevated TSH(More)
The primary function of the thyroid gland is to metabolize iodide by synthesizing thyroid hormones, which are critical regulators of growth, development and metabolism in almost all tissues. So far, research on thyroid morphogenesis has been missing an efficient stem-cell model system that allows for the in vitro recapitulation of the molecular and(More)
Thyroid hormones are iodothyronines that control growth and development, as well as brain function and metabolism. Although thyroid hormone deficiency can be caused by defects of hormone synthesis and action, it has not been linked to a defect in cellular hormone transport. In fact, the physiological role of the several classes of membrane transporters(More)
Incorporation of selenocysteine (Sec), through recoding of the UGA stop codon, creates a unique class of proteins. Mice lacking tRNA(Sec) die in utero, but the in vivo role of other components involved in selenoprotein synthesis is unknown, and Sec incorporation defects have not been described in humans. Deiodinases (DIOs) are selenoproteins involved in(More)
Mutations of the gene expressing plasma membrane transporter for thyroid hormones MCT8 (SLC16A2) in humans lead to altered thyroid hormone levels and a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Genetically engineered defect of the Mct8 gene in mice leads to similar thyroid hormone abnormalities but no obvious impairment of brain development or function. In this(More)
Mutations of the X-linked thyroid hormone (TH) transporter (monocarboxylate transporter, MCT8) produce in humans unusual abnormalities of thyroid function characterized by high serum T3 and low T4 and rT3. The mechanism of these changes remains obscure and raises questions regarding the regulation of intracellular availability and metabolism of TH. To study(More)