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BACKGROUND Increasing attention is being paid to the affordability of medicines in low- and middle-income countries (LICs and MICs) where medicines are often highly priced in relation to income levels. The impoverishing effect of medicine purchases can be estimated by determining pre- and postpayment incomes, which are then compared to a poverty line. Here(More)
OBJECTIVE To develop two practical methods for measuring the affordability of medicines in developing countries. METHODS The proposed methods--catastrophic and impoverishment methods--rely on easily accessible aggregated expenditure data and take into account a country's income distribution and absolute level of income. The catastrophic method quantifies(More)
BACKGROUND WHO and Health Action International (HAI) have developed a standardised method for surveying medicine prices, availability, affordability, and price components in low-income and middle-income countries. Here, we present a secondary analysis of medicine availability in 45 national and subnational surveys done using the WHO/HAI methodology. (More)
The world health report: health systems financing: the path to universal coverage. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or(More)
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the availability and affordability of medicines used to treat cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease and glaucoma and to provide palliative cancer care in six low- and middle-income countries. METHODS A survey of the availability and price of 32 medicines was conducted in a representative sample of public and(More)
OBJECTIVE To ascertain the reliability of applying the WHO Cardiovascular Risk Management Package by non-physician health-care workers (NPHWs) in typical primary health-care settings. METHODS Based on an a priori 80% agreement level between the NPHWs and the "expert" physicians (gold standard), 649 paired (matched) applications of the protocol were(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate potential differences in the availability of medicines for chronic and acute conditions in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS Data on the availability of 30 commonly-surveyed medicines - 15 for acute and 15 for chronic conditions - were obtained from facility-based surveys conducted in 40 developing countries. Results were(More)