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BACKGROUND Depression has a lifetime prevalence of up to 20%. Neuroimaging methods have revealed various structural and functional changes that occur in a human brain during a depressive episode. However, we still lack information concerning the extent to which structural and functional changes co-occur in a depressed brain. Furthermore, it is difficult to(More)
RATIONALE Human positron emission tomography (PET) shows that striatal dopamine D2 receptor occupancy predicts extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). Patients showed a clinical response with > or = 65% D2 occupancy, but EPS only when D2 occupancy >78%. Catalepsy and the selective suppression of conditioned avoidance response (CAR) are often used as animal(More)
Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is an important target in the pathophysiology and therapeutics of major depressive disorder, aggression, and neurodegenerative conditions. We measured the effect of changes in MAO-A substrate on MAO-A binding in regions implicated in affective and neurodegenerative disease with [(11)C]-harmine positron emission tomography in(More)
Drugs that increase dopamine levels in the brain can cause psychotic symptoms in healthy individuals and worsen them in schizophrenic patients. Psychological stress also increases dopamine release and is thought to play a role in susceptibility to psychotic illness. We hypothesized that healthy individuals at elevated risk of developing psychosis would show(More)
Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are G protein-coupled receptors, some of which are localized in the spinal cord dorsal horn, and are involved with pain perception. The anti-nociceptive effects of intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with various mGlu receptor agonists and antagonists were assessed in Long Evans rats with mechanical and thermal(More)
BACKGROUND Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is an important enzyme that metabolizes monoamines such as serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain. In prefrontal cortex, low MAOA binding is associated with aggression and high binding is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and also risk for recurrence of depressive episodes. In rodent models,(More)
Psychological stress causes dopamine release in the striatum and is thought to play a role in susceptibility to psychotic illness. Previous work suggests that an elevated dopaminergic response to stress may index vulnerability to psychosis in certain individuals. With functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured stress-induced changes in brain(More)
CONTEXT Greater prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) binding is associated with depressed mood. Substances in cigarette smoke, such as harman, inhibit MAO-A, and cigarette withdrawal is associated with depressed mood. Dysphoria during cigarette withdrawal predicts relapse. It is unknown whether MAO-A binding increases(More)
Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), a key brain enzyme which metabolizes monoamines, is implicated in the pathophysiology of stress-related illnesses, including major depressive disorder, addiction, and violent behavior. Chronic stressors and glucocorticoid-administration typically associate with elevated MAO-A levels/activity. However, the relationship of shorter(More)
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