Alexander Werner

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Damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leads to cellular changes not only in the affected neurons but also in adjacent glial cells and endothelia, and frequently, to a recruitment of cells of the immune system. These cellular changes form a graded response which is a consistent feature in almost all forms of brain pathology. It appears to reflect an(More)
The interplay between growing axons and the extracellular substrate is pivotal for directing axonal outgrowth during development and regeneration. Here we show an important role for the neuronal cell adhesion molecule alpha7beta1 integrin during peripheral nerve regeneration. Axotomy led to a strong increase of this integrin on regenerating motor and(More)
Although the CNS is an established immune-privileged site, it is under surveillance by the immune system, particularly under pathological conditions. In the current study we examined the lymphocyte infiltration, a key component of this neuroimmune surveillance, into the axotomized facial motor nucleus and analyzed the changes in proinflammatory cytokines(More)
Nerve injury triggers numerous changes in the injured neurons and surrounding non-neuronal cells. Of particular interest are molecular signals that play a role in the overall orchestration of this multifaceted cellular response. Here we investigated the function of interleukin-6 (IL6), a multifunctional neurotrophin and cytokine rapidly expressed in the(More)
CD44 is a cell surface glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion during neurite outgrowth, leukocyte homing, and tumor metastasis. In the current study, we examined the regulation of this molecule 4 days after neural trauma in different forms of central and peripheral injury. Transection of the hypoglossal, vagus, or sciatic nerve led to the appearance of(More)
Activation of microglia is among the first cellular changes in the injured CNS. However, little is known about their specific contribution to secondary damage or repair processes in neighboring neurons and nonneuronal cells or to the immune surveillance of the damaged tissue. Animal models with defective microglial response such as osteopetrosis provide an(More)
The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) constituents of the gram-negative bacterial wall are among the most potent activators of inflammation. In the current study, we examined the effect of subcutaneous injection of Escherichia coli LPS on leukocyte influx into the normal and injured brain using endogenous peroxidase (EP). Normal brain parenchyma does not contain(More)
The macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) is a 40-76-kD glycoprotein that plays an important role in the activation and proliferation of microglia both in vitro and in injured neural tissue. Here, we examined the regulation of MCSF receptor (MCSFR) and MCSF in the normal and injured mouse central nervous system (CNS) by using confocal laser(More)
Mice heterozygously deficient in the p0 gene (P0(+/-)) are animal models for some forms of inherited neuropathies. They display a progressive demyelinating phenotype in motor nerves, accompanied by mild infiltration of lymphocytes and increase in macrophages. We have shown previously that the T lymphocytes are instrumental in the demyelination process. This(More)
Both the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex and alpha7beta1 integrin have critical roles in the maintenance of muscle integrity via the provision of mechanical links between muscle fibres and the basement membrane. Absence of either dystrophin or alpha7 integrin results in a muscular dystrophy. To clarify the role of alpha7 integrin and dystrophin in muscle(More)