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OBJECTIVE The colonic microbiota ferment dietary fibres, producing short chain fatty acids. Recent evidence suggests that the short chain fatty acid propionate may play an important role in appetite regulation. We hypothesised that colonic delivery of propionate would increase peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in humans, and(More)
Increased intake of dietary carbohydrate that is fermented in the colon by the microbiota has been reported to decrease body weight, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here we use in vivo(11)C-acetate and PET-CT scanning to show that colonic acetate crosses the blood-brain barrier and is taken up by the brain. Intraperitoneal acetate results in(More)
Glucagon and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 are the primary products of proglucagon processing from the pancreas and gut, respectively. Giving dual agonists with glucagon and GLP-1 activity to diabetic, obese mice causes enhanced weight loss and improves glucose tolerance by reduction of food intake and by increase in energy expenditure (EE). We aimed to(More)
OBJECTIVE Chronic low-grade inflammation is a feature of obesity and is postulated to be causal in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess whether overfeeding induces peripheral insulin resistance in lean and overweight humans, and, if so, whether it is associated with increased systemic and adipose(More)
OBJECTIVE Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a leading genetic cause of obesity, characterized by hyperphagia, endocrine and developmental disorders. It is suggested that the intense hyperphagia could stem, in part, from impaired gut hormone signaling. Previous studies produced conflicting results, being confounded by differences in body composition between PWS(More)
Long-term follow-up of serum immunoglobulin levels in blinatumomab-treated patients with minimal residual disease-positive B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia Blinatumomab has shown efficacy in B-cell malignancies. 1–3 Rapid clearance of peripheral B cells has been demonstrated, resulting in sustained B-cell depletion throughout the treatment period.(More)
OBJECTIVE Dietary supplementation with fermentable carbohydrate protects against body weight gain. Fermentation by the resident gut microbiota produces short-chain fatty acids, which act at free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2). Our aim was to test the hypothesis that FFAR2 is important in regulating the beneficial effects of fermentable carbohydrate on body(More)
BACKGROUND Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced through fermentation of nondigestible carbohydrates by the gut microbiota are associated with positive metabolic effects. However, well-controlled trials are limited in humans. AIMS To develop a methodology to deliver SCFA directly to the colon, and to optimise colonic propionate delivery in humans, to(More)
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