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Images with a spatial resolution of 120-150 nm were obtained with 46.9 nm light from a compact capillary-discharge laser by use of the combination of a Sc-Si multilayer-coated Schwarzschild condenser and a free-standing imaging zone plate. The results are relevant to the development of compact extreme-ultraviolet laser-based imaging tools for nanoscience(More)
We report the demonstration of reflection mode imaging of 100 nm-scale features using 46.9 nm light from a compact capillary-discharge laser. Our imaging system employs a Sc/Si multilayer coated Schwarzschild condenser and a freestanding zone plate objective. The reported results advance the development of practical and readily available surface and(More)
The review is devoted to main neurosurgical approaches to the treatment of the spasticity syndrome in children cerebral palsy. Neurosurgical procedures are divided into destructive and neuromodulating. The former included posterior selective rhizotomy, selective neurotomy and destructive operations on subcortical brain structures. The latter group included(More)
Spasticity in children cerebral palsy has its own peculiarities due to the presence of pathological tonic reflexes, pathological sinkinetic activity during arbitrary movements, disturbance of coordinative interactions of muscle synergists and antagonists, increase of total reflex excitability. Physiotherapeutic methods, massage, therapeutic exercises,(More)
We have used a tabletop soft-x-ray laser and a wave-front division interferometer to probe the plasma of a pinch discharge. A very compact capillary discharge-pumped Ne-like Ar laser emitting at 46.9 nm was combined with a wave division interferometer based on Lloyd's mirror and Sc-Si multilayer-coated optics to map the electron density in the cathode(More)
Sc-Si multilayers are suggested as high-reflectivity coatings for a VUV interval of 35-50 nm. Fabricated mirrors show normal-incidence reflectivity of 30-54%, which is high enough for effective manipulation of the beams of compact-discharge, laser-driven x-ray lasers. The values obtained are not, however, limits for Sc-Si coatings. Theoretical estimations(More)
The chemical reaction of a sample with atmospheric gases causes a significant error in the determinantion of the complex refractive index n = 1 - delta + ibeta in the extreme-ultraviolet region. The protection of samples removes this effect but hampers the interpretation of measurements. To overcome this difficulty, we derive the exact dependences on film(More)
We have demonstrated near-wavelength resolution microscopy in the extreme ultraviolet. Images of 50 nm diameter nanotubes were obtained with a single ~1 ns duration pulse from a desktop-size 46.9 nm laser. We measured the modulation transfer function of the microscope for three different numerical aperture zone plate objectives, demonstrating that 54 nm(More)
We focused the beam of a high-repetition-rate capillary-discharge tabletop laser operating at a wavelength of 46.9 nm, using a spherical Si/Sc multilayer mirror. The energy densities significantly exceeded the thresholds for the ablation of metals. Single-shot laser ablation patterns were used in combination with ray-tracing computations to characterize the(More)