Alexander V. Markov

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Phanerozoic marine genera apparently do not become less extinction-prone with age. Higher extinction probability in "young" cohorts of genera is better explained by initially different levels of extinction-tolerance of genera in the cohort. This fact agrees with one of the two basic statements of the "Red Queen" hypothesis (Van Valen, 1973). In the second(More)
It has long been observed that many neuronal types position their nuclei within restricted cytoplasmic boundaries. A striking example is the apical localization of cone photoreceptors nuclei at the outer edge of the outer nuclear layer of mammalian retinas. Yet, little is known about how such nuclear spatial confinement is achieved and further maintained.(More)
The theory of adaptive senescence, or phenoptosis (“altruistic suicide” of the organism), implies that mutations enhancing mortality growth with age (“senescence genes”) can be favored by selection under some circumstances, although the nature of these circumstances and the frequency of their occurrence are not clear. Here I demonstrate by means of computer(More)
BACKGROUND DNA extraction from plant tissues, unlike DNA isolation from mammalian tissues, remains difficult due to the presence of a rigid cell wall around the plant cells. Currently used methods inevitably require a laborious mechanical grinding step, necessary to disrupt the cell wall for the release of DNA. RESULTS Using a cocktail of different(More)
The distribution of cohesin complex in polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster was studied. Cohesin is a complicated protein complex which is regulated by the DRAD21 subunit. Using immunostaining for DRAD21p, the cohesins were shown to be preferentially located in the interband regions. This specificity was not characteristic for puffs, where(More)
The dynamics of aging is often described by survival curves that show the proportion of individuals surviving to a given age. The shape of the survival curve reflects the dependence of mortality on age, and it varies greatly for different organisms. In a recently published paper, Stroustrup and coauthors ((2016) Nature, {vn530}, 103–107) showed that many(More)
Accumulation of various types of unrepaired damage of the genome because of increasing production of reactive oxygen species and decreasing efficiency of the antioxidant defense system and repair systems can cause age-related diseases and emergence of phenotypic signs of senescence. This should lead to increasing vulnerability and to mortality monotonously(More)
Experimental adaptation of Drosophila melanogaster to nutrient-deficient starch-based (S) medium resulted in lifespan shortening, increased early-life fecundity, accelerated reproductive aging, and sexually dimorphic survival curves. The direction of all these evolutionary changes coincides with the direction of phenotypic plasticity observed in non-adapted(More)
The origin of eukaryote-specific traits such as mitosis and sexual reproduction remains disputable. There is growing evidence that both mitosis and eukaryotic sex (i.e., the alternation of syngamy and meiosis) may have already existed in the basal eukaryotes. The mating system of the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii probably represents an intermediate(More)
Phenotypic plasticity, i.e., the ability of a genotype to produce various phenotypes in response to changes in the environment, plays an important, although poorly understood and often underestimated, role in evolution. Both adaptive and nonadaptive phenotypic plasticity modulate the strength and direction of selection acting on a population and can,(More)