Alexander V Chervonsky

Learn More
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a debilitating autoimmune disease that results from T-cell-mediated destruction of insulin-producing beta-cells. Its incidence has increased during the past several decades in developed countries, suggesting that changes in the environment (including the human microbial environment) may influence disease pathogenesis. The incidence(More)
Autophagy is known to be important in presentation of cytosolic antigens on MHC class II (MHC II). However, the role of autophagic process in antigen presentation in vivo is unclear. Mice with dendritic cell (DC)-conditional deletion in Atg5, a key autophagy gene, showed impaired CD4(+) T cell priming after herpes simplex virus infection and succumbed to(More)
Gender bias and the role of sex hormones in autoimmune diseases are well established. In specific pathogen-free nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, females have 1.3-4.4 times higher incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Germ-free (GF) mice lost the gender bias (female-to-male ratio 1.1-1.2). Gut microbiota differed in males and females, a trend reversed by male(More)
Fas (also known as Apo-1 and CD95) receptor has been suggested to control T cell expansion by triggering T cell-autonomous apoptosis. This paradigm is based on the extensive lymphoproliferation and systemic autoimmunity in mice and humans lacking Fas or its ligand. However, with systemic loss of Fas, it is unclear whether T cell-extrinsic mechanisms(More)
Despite years of appreciating the potential role of environment to influence the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, specific agents or mechanisms serving in such a capacity remain ill defined. This is exceedingly disappointing as the identification of factors capable of modulating the disease, either as triggers or regulators of the autoimmune response(More)
The development of spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is preceded by the organization of tertiary lymphoid organ (TLO) in situ, but its role in the development of tissue destruction and the cytokines that control such structures have not been fully defined. We have now observed that TNF superfamily 14 (TNFSF14) is upregulated in aged nonobese(More)
Fucose is an L-configuration sugar found abundantly in the mammalian gut. It has long been known to be induced there by the presence of bacteria, but only recently have some of the molecular mechanisms behind this process been uncovered. New work suggests that fucose can have a protective role in both gut-centered and systemic infection and inflammation.(More)
Notch signaling is essential for embryonic vascular development in mammals and other vertebrates. Here we show that mouse embryos with conditional activation of the Notch1 gene in endothelial cells (Notch1 gain of function embryos) exhibit defects in vascular remodeling increased diameter of the dorsal aortae, and form arteriovenous malformations.(More)
Immunologically privileged sites express Fas ligand (FasL), which protects them from attack by activated T cells that express Fas and die upon contact with FasL. In an attempt to protect nonobese diabetic mice (NOD) from autoimmune diabetes, we made FasL transgenic NOD mice using the beta cell-specific rat insulin-1 promoter. Surprisingly, these transgenic(More)
Endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) proviruses have recently been shown to cosegregate genetically with the minor lymphocyte-stimulating loci, also termed self-superantigens. The antigenic activity has been localized to the open reading frame (ORF) protein encoded in the long terminal repeat of MMTV. We show here that unlike their nontransgenic(More)