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OBJECTIVES Metabolic flexibility is defined as ability to adjust fuel oxidation to fuel availability. Multiple sclerosis (MS) results in reduced muscle strength and exercise intolerance. We tested the hypothesis that altered metabolic flexibility contributes to exercise intolerance in MS patients. METHODS We studied 16 patients (all on glatiramer) and 16(More)
Neuroaxonal degeneration in the central nervous system contributes substantially to the long term disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, in vivo determination and monitoring of neurodegeneration remain difficult. As the widely used MRI-based approaches, including the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) have some limitations, complementary in(More)
Background. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has facilitated characterisation of retinal alterations in MS patients. Only scarce and in part conflicting data exists on different MS subtypes. Objective. To analyse patterns of retinal changes in different subtypes of MS with latest spectral-domain technology. Methods. In a three-centre cross-sectional study(More)
OBJECTIVE Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune encephalitis with a characteristic neuropsychiatric syndrome and severe and prolonged clinical courses. In contrast, standard clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains normal in the majority of patients. Here, we investigated structural and functional brain changes in(More)
BACKGROUND Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) are difficult to differentiate solely on clinical grounds. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies investigating retinal changes in both diseases focused primarily on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) while rare data are available on deeper intra-retinal layers. (More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the damage to the retinal nerve fiber layer as part of the anterior visual pathway as well as an impairment of the neuronal and axonal integrity in the visual cortex as part of the posterior visual pathway with complementary neuroimaging techniques, and to correlate our results to patients' clinical symptoms concerning the visual(More)
BACKGROUND Two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) has become a powerful tool in the visualization of immune cell dynamics and cellular communication within the complex biological networks of the inflamed central nervous system (CNS). Whereas many previous studies mainly focused on the role of effector or effector memory T cells, the role of naïve T(More)
BACKGROUND Autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 is an adult onset progressive disorder with well characterized neurodegeneration in the cerebellum and brainstem. Beyond brain atrophy, few data exist concerning retinal and optic nerve involvement. OBJECTIVE To evaluate retinal changes in SCA1 patients compared to age and gender matched healthy(More)
BACKGROUND Retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thinning is associated with brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS). An influence of optic neuritis is well documented but sparsely investigated. Recently, the retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) has been shown to provide superior information regarding visual function and retinal neurodegeneration as compared with(More)
OBJECTIVE Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has gained increasing attention in multiple sclerosis (MS) research and has been suggested as outcome measure for neuroprotective therapies. However, to date it is not clear whether patterns of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) loss are different in MS compared to other diseases such as glaucoma and(More)