Alexander Ulrich Brandt

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BACKGROUND Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), a novel human retrovirus originally identified in prostate cancer tissues, has recently been associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), a disabling disease of unknown etiology affecting millions of people worldwide. However, several subsequent studies failed to detect the virus in(More)
BACKGROUND Retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thinning is associated with brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS). An influence of optic neuritis is well documented but sparsely investigated. Recently, the retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) has been shown to provide superior information regarding visual function and retinal neurodegeneration as compared with(More)
BACKGROUND Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) are difficult to differentiate solely on clinical grounds. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies investigating retinal changes in both diseases focused primarily on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) while rare data are available on deeper intra-retinal layers. (More)
A subset of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) has been shown to be seropositive for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-IgG). To describe the epidemiological, clinical, radiological, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and electrophysiological features of a large cohort of MOG-IgG-positive patients with optic neuritis (ON)(More)
OBJECTIVE Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune encephalitis with a characteristic neuropsychiatric syndrome and severe and prolonged clinical courses. In contrast, standard clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains normal in the majority of patients. Here, we investigated structural and functional brain changes in(More)
Conventional time domain optical coherence tomography has been established for the in vivo assessment of retinal axonal loss in multiple sclerosis. The innovative spectral domain imaging is superior to the conventional technique with respect to data acquisition speed, resolution and reproducibility. However, until now comparability of the two techniques has(More)
Understanding the immune response in the central nervous system (CNS) is crucial for the development of new therapeutic concepts in chronic neuroinflammation, which differs considerably from other autoimmune diseases. Special immunologic properties of inflammatory processes in the CNS, which is often referred to as an immune privileged site, imply distinct(More)
Neuroaxonal degeneration in the central nervous system contributes substantially to the long term disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, in vivo determination and monitoring of neurodegeneration remain difficult. As the widely used MRI-based approaches, including the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) have some limitations, complementary in(More)
BACKGROUND Damage to venules in multiple sclerosis was first described decades ago. Today, ultrahigh magnetic field strength T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques depict very small cerebral veins in vivo with great anatomical detail. OBJECTIVE We aimed to investigate alterations of periventricular small blood vessel appearance in(More)
BACKGROUND Fatigue is the most common symptom in multiple sclerosis patients, but is difficult to measure; quantification thus relies on self-assessed questionnaires. OBJECTIVE To evaluate a battery of neuropsychological tests regarding their capacity to objectify self-reported fatigue. METHODS We assessed the correlation between age, gender, education,(More)