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BACKGROUND Axonal and neuronal damage are widely accepted as key events in the disease course of multiple sclerosis. However, it has been unclear to date at which stage in disease evolution neurodegeneration begins and whether neuronal damage can occur even in the absence of acute inflammatory attacks. OBJECTIVE To characterize inner retinal layer changes(More)
Conventional time domain optical coherence tomography has been established for the in vivo assessment of retinal axonal loss in multiple sclerosis. The innovative spectral domain imaging is superior to the conventional technique with respect to data acquisition speed, resolution and reproducibility. However, until now comparability of the two techniques has(More)
BACKGROUND Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), a novel human retrovirus originally identified in prostate cancer tissues, has recently been associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), a disabling disease of unknown etiology affecting millions of people worldwide. However, several subsequent studies failed to detect the virus in(More)
BACKGROUND Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) are difficult to differentiate solely on clinical grounds. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies investigating retinal changes in both diseases focused primarily on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) while rare data are available on deeper intra-retinal layers. (More)
BACKGROUND Retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thinning is associated with brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS). An influence of optic neuritis is well documented but sparsely investigated. Recently, the retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) has been shown to provide superior information regarding visual function and retinal neurodegeneration as compared with(More)
OBJECTIVES Metabolic flexibility is defined as ability to adjust fuel oxidation to fuel availability. Multiple sclerosis (MS) results in reduced muscle strength and exercise intolerance. We tested the hypothesis that altered metabolic flexibility contributes to exercise intolerance in MS patients. METHODS We studied 16 patients (all on glatiramer) and 16(More)
BACKGROUND Fatigue is the most common symptom in multiple sclerosis patients, but is difficult to measure; quantification thus relies on self-assessed questionnaires. OBJECTIVE To evaluate a battery of neuropsychological tests regarding their capacity to objectify self-reported fatigue. METHODS We assessed the correlation between age, gender, education,(More)
Fatigue is one of the most frequent and disabling symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS). Its pathophysiology remains poorly understood and objective measures to quantify fatigue are unavailable to date. To investigate whether analysis of ocular motor movements can provide diagnostic information in MS patients with fatigue, 37 MS patients (21 female, age 44 ±(More)
BACKGROUND Fatigue is one of the most frequent and disabling symptoms in multiple sclerosis, but its pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood. It is in particular unclear whether and how fatigue relates to structural and functional brain changes. OBJECTIVE We aimed to analyse the association of fatigue severity with basal ganglia functional(More)