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We report an interaction between poxA, encoding a paralog of lysyl tRNA-synthetase, and the closely linked yjeK gene, encoding a putative 2,3-beta-lysine aminomutase, that is critical for virulence and stress resistance in Salmonella enterica. Salmonella poxA and yjeK mutants share extensive phenotypic pleiotropy, including attenuated virulence in mice, an(More)
IpaH proteins are E3 ubiquitin ligases delivered by the type III secretion apparatus into host cells upon infection of humans by the Gram-negative pathogen Shigella flexneri. These proteins comprise a variable leucine-rich repeat-containing N-terminal domain and a conserved C-terminal domain harboring an invariant cysteine residue that is crucial for(More)
Ubiquitous bacteria from the genus Oleispira drive oil degradation in the largest environment on Earth, the cold and deep sea. Here we report the genome sequence of Oleispira antarctica and show that compared with Alcanivorax borkumensis--the paradigm of mesophilic hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria--O. antarctica has a larger genome that has witnessed massive(More)
NleG homologues constitute the largest family of Type 3 effectors delivered by pathogenic E. coli, with fourteen members in the enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) O157:H7 strain alone. Identified recently as part of the non-LEE-encoded (Nle) effector set, this family remained uncharacterised and shared no sequence homology to other proteins including those of known(More)
Type III effectors are virulence factors of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens delivered directly into host cells by the type III secretion nanomachine where they manipulate host cell processes such as the innate immunity and gene expression. Here, we show that the novel type III effector XopL from the model plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv.(More)
Cyanophages infecting the marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus encode and express genes for the photosynthetic light reactions. Sequenced cyanophage genomes lack Calvin cycle genes, however, suggesting that photosynthetic energy harvested via phage proteins is not used for carbon fixation. We report here that cyanophages carry and express(More)
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis and photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, catalyzes the hydrolysis of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) to produce fructose 6-phosphate, an important precursor in various biosynthetic pathways. All known FBPases are metal-dependent enzymes, which are classified into five different classes based on(More)
Inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatases, which are ubiquitous house-cleaning enzymes, hydrolyze noncanonical nucleoside triphosphates (inosine triphosphate (ITP) and xanthosine triphosphate (XTP)) and prevent the incorporation of hypoxanthine or xanthine into nascent DNA or RNA. Here we present the 1.5-A-resolution crystal structure of the inosine(More)
Cyclic diguanylate (or bis-(3'-5') cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate; c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates diverse cellular functions, including motility, biofilm formation, cell cycle progression, and virulence in bacteria. In the cell, degradation of c-di-GMP is catalyzed by highly specific EAL domain phosphodiesterases whose(More)
The uncharacterized α/β-hydrolase protein OLEI01171 from the psychrophilic marine bacterium Oleispira antarctica belongs to the PF00756 family of putative esterases, which also includes human esterase D. In the present paper we show that purified recombinant OLEI01171 exhibits high esterase activity against the model esterase substrate α-naphthyl acetate at(More)