Alexander Thielen

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BACKGROUND The Maraviroc versus Optimized Therapy in Viremic Antiretroviral Treatment-Experienced Patients (MOTIVATE) studies compared maraviroc versus placebo in treatment-experienced patients with CCR5-using (R5) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), screened using the original Trofile assay. A subset with non-R5 HIV infection entered the A4001029(More)
Computational analysis of the variations in the HIV-1 genome sequence that correlate with preferential binding to the CCR5 (C-Cmotif receptor 5) or CXCR4 (C-X-C motif receptor 4) coreceptors in the host promises to enhance the prediction of disease pathogenesis and enable the optimization of treatment regimes. With new HIV drugs targeting coreceptors(More)
Using quantitative deep HIV-1 sequencing in a subject who developed virological failure to deep salvage therapy with raltegravir, we found that most Q148R and N155H mutants detected at the time of virological failure originated from pre-existing minority Q148R and N155H variants through independent evolutionary clusters. Double 148R+N155H mutants were also(More)
BACKGROUND The MOTIVATE-1 and 2 studies compared maraviroc (MVC) along with optimized background therapy (OBT) vs. placebo along with OBT in treatment-experienced patients screened as having R5-HIV (original Monogram Trofile). A subset screened with non-R5 HIV were treated with MVC or placebo along with OBT in a sister safety trial, A4001029. This analysis(More)
BACKGROUND Tropism testing should rule out CXCR4-using HIV before treatment with CCR5 antagonists. Currently, the recombinant phenotypic Trofile assay (Monogram) is most widely utilized; however, genotypic tests may represent alternative methods. METHODS Independent triplicate amplifications of the HIV gp120 V3 region were made from either plasma HIV RNA(More)
BACKGROUND Deep sequencing is a highly sensitive technique that can detect and quantify the proportion of non-R5 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) variants, including small minorities, that may emerge and cause virologic failure in patients who receive maraviroc-containing regimens. We retrospectively tested the ability of deep sequencing to predict(More)
A study was made of the chlorophyll fluorescence spectra between 100 and 4.2 K of chloroplasts of various species of higher plants (wild strains and chlorophyll b mutants) and of subchloroplast particles enriched in Photosystem I or II. The chloroplast spectra showed the well known emission bands at about 685, 695 and 715--740 nm; the System I and II(More)
BACKGROUND Genotypic drug resistance testing provides essential information for guiding treatment in HIV-infected patients. It may either be used for identifying patients with transmitted drug resistance or to clarify reasons for treatment failure and to check for remaining treatment options. While different approaches for the interpretation of HIV sequence(More)
BACKGROUND Inferring viral tropism from genotype is a fast and inexpensive alternative to phenotypic testing. While being highly predictive when performed on clonal samples, sensitivity of predicting CXCR4-using (X4) variants drops substantially in clinical isolates. This is mainly attributed to minor variants not detected by standard bulk-sequencing.(More)
In the present study we used three types of Nicotiana tabacum, cv John William's Broad Leaf (the wild type and two mutants, the yellow-green Su/su and the yellow Su/su var. Aurea) in order to correlat functional properties of Photosystem II and Photosystem I with the structural organization of their chloroplasts. The effective absorption cross-section of(More)